Journal of Applied Phycology

, Volume 30, Issue 1, pp 231–242 | Cite as

Extraction of C-phycocyanin from Arthrospira (Spirulina) and its thermal stability with citric acid

  • Wanida Pan-utaiEmail author
  • Wareerat Kahapana
  • Siriluck IamthamEmail author
4th AOAIS-Wuhan


C-phycocyanin (C-PC) is a blue pigment often found in cyanobacteria. It has commercial and biotechnological value as a nutraceutical for pharmaceutical and biomedical research, as well as a natural colorant for the cosmetic industry. Cyanobacteria from the Arthrospira (Spirulina) genus are one of the major sources of C-phycocyanin with up to 20% protein fraction. The biomass-solvent ratio, buffer concentration, temperature, and time regarding C-phycocyanin concentration, extract purity, and yield of C-phycocyanin were evaluated. The optimum extraction conditions for Arthrospira platensis were determined as a biomass-solvent ratio of 0.06 g mL−1 at 25 °C for 24 to 48 h. Temperature is an important factor in C-phycocyanin degradation. Citric acid was added as an edible preservative to increase the thermal stability of C-phycocyanin extracted from A. platensis, followed by incubation at 80 °C for 1 h. The initial concentration of C-phycocyanin with citric acid was reduced from 65 to 19% within 1 h; in contrast, the remaining C-phycocyanin concentration without citric acid reduced from 51 to 11%. The use of citric acid as an edible preservative increased the stability of C-phycocyanin in high thermal processing applications and extraction.


C-phycocyanin Extraction Stability Arthrospira platensis 



This study was supported by the Kasetsart University Research and Development Institute (KURDI), Kasetsart University and the Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology, Science and Technology Postgraduate Education and Research Development Office, Office of Higher Education Commission, Ministry of Education (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE), Thailand.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Food Research and Product DevelopmentKasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  2. 2.Department of Science, Faculty of Liberal Arts and ScienceKasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand
  3. 3.Center for Advanced Studies in Tropical Natural ResourceNRU-KU, Kasetsart UniversityBangkokThailand
  4. 4.Center for Agricultural BiotechnologyKasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand
  5. 5.Center of Excellence on Agricultural Biotechnology: (AG-BIO/PERDO-CHE)BangkokThailand
  6. 6.Research Unit of Orchid Tissue CultureKasetsart University, Kamphaeng Saen CampusNakhon PathomThailand

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