Advertisement

THE INTERACTIONAL ACCOMPLISHMENT OF NOT KNOWING IN ELEMENTARY SCHOOL SCIENCE AND MATHEMATICS: IMPLICATIONS FOR CLASSROOM PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT PRACTICES

  • Giuliano ReisEmail author
  • Richard Barwell
Article

ABSTRACT

The day-to-day business of being a science or mathematics teacher involves the continuous assessment of students. This, in turn, is an inherently discursive process. The aim of the present study is to examine some of the specific discursive practices through which science and mathematics knowing is jointly produced through classroom interaction. In particular, we examine the coproduced nature of two students’ not knowing—one in an outdoor elementary school science lesson and the other in an elementary school mathematics lesson. Our analysis is based on ideas in discursive psychology and challenges conventional interpretations of students’ academic performance in school science and mathematics.

KEY WORDS

assessment discourse analysis mathematics education qualitative research science education 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Abi-El-Mona, I. & Abd-El-Khalick, F. (2006). Argumentative discourse in a high school chemistry classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 106(8), 349–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adams, T. & Hsu, J.-W. (1998). Classroom assessment: Teachers’ conceptions and practices in mathematics. School Science and Mathematics, 98(4), 174–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Auburn, T. (2005). Narrative reflexivity as a repair device for discounting “cognitive distortions” in sex offender treatment. Discourse & Society, 16(5), 697–718.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Barwell, R. (2003) Discursive psychology and mathematics education: possibilities and challenges. Zentralblatt für Ditaktik der Mathematik (ZDM), 35(5), 201–207.Google Scholar
  5. Barwell, R. (2009) Researchers’ descriptions and the construction of mathematical thinking. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 79(2), 255–269.Google Scholar
  6. Barwell, R. (2012) Discursive demands and equity in second language mathematics classrooms. In B. Herbel-Eisenmann, J. Choppin, D. Wagner, & D. Pimm, (Eds.) Equity in discourse for mathematics education: theories, practices, and policies (pp. 147–164). New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  7. Black, L. (2004). Differential participation in whole-class discussions and the construction of marginalized identities. Journal of Educational Enquiry, 5(1), 34–54.Google Scholar
  8. Buxton, C., Carlone, H. & Carlone, D. (2005). Boundary spanners as bridges of student and school discourses in an urban science and math high school. School Science and Mathematics, 105(6), 302–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Casa, T. M., McGivney-Burelle, J. & DeFranco, T. C. (2007). The development of an instrument to measure preservice teachers’ attitudes about discourse in the mathematics classroom. School Science and Mathematics, 107(2), 70–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Chabalengula, V., Sanders, M. & Mumba, F. (2012). Diagnosing students’ understanding of energy and its related concepts in biological context. Journal of Science and Mathematics Education, 10(2), 241–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Clarke, D., Clarke, D. & Lovitt, C. J. (1990). Changes in mathematics teaching call for assessment alternatives. In T. Cooney & C. Hirsch (Eds.), Teaching and learning mathematics in the 1990s: 1990 yearbook (pp. 118–129). Reston: National Council of Teachers of Mathematics.Google Scholar
  12. Dole, S., Nisbet, S., Warren, E. & Cooper, T. (1999). Teacher collaboration in developing rich assessment tasks in mathematics as a professional development activity. Mathematics Teacher Education and Development, 1, 38–49.Google Scholar
  13. Edwards, D. (1997). Discourse and cognition. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Edwards, D. & Potter, J. (1992). Discursive psychology. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  15. Esmonde, I. (2009). Explanations in mathematics classrooms: A discourse analysis. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 9(2), 86–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Esmonde, I. & Moschkovich, J. (2011). Introduction to the special issue on equitable access to participation in mathematics discussions: Students’ discourse, experiences, and perspectives. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 11(3), 199–206.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Forbes, C. & Davis, E. (2010). Beginning elementary teachers’ beliefs about the use of anchoring questions in science: A longitudinal study. Science Education, 94(2), 365–387.Google Scholar
  18. Gallimore, R. & Tharp, R. G. (1990). Teaching mind in society: Teaching, schooling, and literate discourse. In L. C. Moll (Ed.), Vygotsky and education: Instructional implications and applications of sociohistorical psychology (pp. 175–205). New York: Cambridge University Press (1st paperback 1992).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Garfinkel, H. (1967). Studies in ethnomethodology. Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.Google Scholar
  20. Gee, J. (2000). Identity as an analytic lens for research in education. Review of Research in Education, 25, 99–125.Google Scholar
  21. Gustafson, B. & MacDonald, D. (2004). Talk as a tool for thinking: Using professional discourse practices to frame children’s design-technology talk. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 4(3), 331–351.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Haines, C. & Izard, J. (1994). Assessing mathematical communications about projects and investigations. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 27(4), 373–386.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Hammersley, M. (2003). Conversation analysis and discourse analysis: Methods or paradigms? Discourse & Society, 14(6), 751–781.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Harré, R. & Gillett, G. (1994). The discursive mind. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  25. Herbel-Eisenmann, B., Lubienski, S. T. & Id-Deen, L. (2006). Reconsidering the study of mathematics instructional practices: The importance of curricular context in understanding local and global teacher change. Journal of Mathematics Teacher Education, 9(4), 313–345.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Hintz, A. (2011). Understanding students’ experiences as listeners during mathematical discussion. Canadian Journal of Science, Mathematics, and Technology Education, 11(3), 261–272.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Hufferd-Ackles, K., Fuson, K. C. & Sherin, M. G. (2004). Describing levels and components of a math-talk learning community. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education, 35(2), 81–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Kamberelis, G. & Wehunt, M. D. (2012). Hybrid discourse practice and science learning. Cultural Studies of Science Education, 7(3).Google Scholar
  29. Kieran, C., Forman, E. & Sfard, A. (2001). Bridging the individual and the social: Discursive approaches to research in mathematics education: A PME special issue. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 46(1–3).Google Scholar
  30. Knuth, E. & Peressini, D. (2001). A theoretical framework for examining discourse in mathematics classrooms. Focus on Learning Problems in Mathematics, 23(2 & 3), 5–22.Google Scholar
  31. Krussel, L., Edwards, B. & Springer, G. (2004). The teacher’s discourse moves: A framework for analyzing discourse in mathematics classrooms. School Science and Mathematics, 104(7), 307–312.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Lee, O. & Paik, S.-H. (2000). Conceptions of science achievement in major reform documents. School Science and Mathematics, 100(1), 16–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lemke, J. (1990). Talking science: Language, learning, and values. Norwood: Ablex.Google Scholar
  34. Ma, X. (2009). Understanding the relationship between mathematics and science coursework patterns. Teachers College Record, 111(9), 2101–2126.Google Scholar
  35. Mallow, J., Kastrup, H., Bryant, F. B., Hislop, N., Shefner, R. & Udo, M. (2010). Science anxiety, science attitudes, and gender: Interviews from a binational study. Journal of Science Education and Technology, 19(4), 356–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. McHoul, A. (1979). The organization of turns at formal talk in the classroom. Language in Society, 7(2), 183–213.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Mehan, H. (1979). “What time is it, Denise?”: Asking known information questions in classroom discourse. Theory into Practice, 18(4), 285–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Mortimer, E. & Scott, P. H. (2003). Meaning making in secondary science classrooms. Maidenhead: Open University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Oliveira-Jayme, B., Reis, G., van Eijck, M., & Roth, W.-M. (2012). Aulas de ciências em laboratórios de informática: uma construção discursiva do monopólio participativo. Linhas Criticas, 18(35), 107–126.Google Scholar
  40. Ontario Ministry of Education (2005). Mathematics curriculum grades 1–8. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.Google Scholar
  41. Ontario Ministry of Education (2007). Science and technology curriculum grades 1–8. Ottawa: Queen’s Printer for Ontario.Google Scholar
  42. Pimm, D. (1987). Speaking mathematically: Communication in mathematics classrooms. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  43. Potter, J. (1998). Discursive social psychology: From attitudes to evaluations. European Review of Social Psychology, 9(1), 233–266.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Reis, G. & Roth, W.-M. (2007). Environmental education in action: a discursive approach to curriculum design. Environmental Education Research, 13(3), 307–327.Google Scholar
  45. Reis, G. (2007). On and off school ground: A discursive approach to science and environmental education. (Doctoral dissertation). Retrived from:: http://dspace.library.uvic.ca:8080/handle/1828/237.
  46. Roth, W.-M., van Eijck, M., Reis, G., & Hsu, P.-L. (2008). Authentic science revisited. Rotterdam: Sense Publishers.Google Scholar
  47. Rex, L. & Schiller, L. (2009). Using discourse analysis to improve classroom interaction. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Rowland, T. (1995). Hedges in mathematics talk: Linguistic pointers to uncertainty. Educational Studies in Mathematics, 29(4), 327–353.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Sacks, H. (1992a). Lectures on conversation (vol. 1). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  50. Sacks, H. (1992b). Lectures on conversation (vol. 2). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  51. Sanders, R. E. (2005). Validating ‘observations’ in discourse studies: A methodological reason for attention to cognition. In H. Te Molder & J. Potter (Eds.), Conversation and cognition (pp. 57–78). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Sfard, A. (2008). Thinking as communicating: Human development, the growth of discourses, and mathematizing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Thompson, D. (1999). Using performance assessment to engage preservice teachers in mathematical discourse. School Science and Mathematics, 99(2), 84–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Truxaw, M. P., Gorgievski, N. & DeFranco, T. C. (2008). Measuring K-8 teachers perceptions of discourse use in their mathematics classes. School Science and Mathematics, 108(2), 58–70.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Warren, E. & Nisbet, S. (2001). How grades 1–7 teachers assess mathematics and how they use the assessment data. School Science and Mathematics, 101(7), 348–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© National Science Council, Taiwan 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of EducationUniversity of OttawaOttawaCanada

Personalised recommendations