Advertisement

Bioaccumulation and associated dietary risks of Pb, Cd, and Zn in amaranth (Amaranthus cruentus) and jute mallow (Corchorus olitorius) grown on soil irrigated using polluted water from Asa River, Nigeria

  • Clement Oluseye Ogunkunle
  • Abdul M. ZiyathEmail author
  • Faderera Esther Adewumi
  • Paul Ojo Fatoba
Article

Abstract

Dietary uptake of heavy metals through the consumption of vegetables grown on polluted soil can have serious human health implications. Thus, the study presented in this paper investigated the bioaccumulation and associated dietary risks of Pb, Zn, and Cd present in vegetables widely consumed in Nigeria, namely amaranth and jute mallow, grown on soil irrigated with polluted water from Asa River. The study found that the soil was polluted with Zn, Pb, and Cd with Pb and Cd being contributed by polluted river, while Zn was from geogenic sources. The metal concentration in amaranth and jute mallow varied in the order of Zn > Pb > Cd and Zn > Pb ≈ Cd, respectively. Jute mallow acts as an excluder plant for Pb, Cd, and Zn. Consequently, the metal concentrations in jute mallow were below the toxic threshold levels. Furthermore, non-cancer human health risk of consuming jute mallow from the study site was not significant. In contrast, the concentrations of Pb and Cd in amaranth were found to be above the recommended safe levels and to be posing human health risks. Therefore, further investigation was undertaken to identify the pathways of heavy metals to amaranth. The study found that the primary uptake pathway of Pb and Cd by amaranth is foliar route, while root uptake is the predominant pathway of Zn in amaranth.

Keywords

Heavy metals Foliar uptake Root uptake Hazard quotient Bio-concentration factor 

Notes

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that this study was not funded by any external agency and they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abdu, N., Abdulkadir, A., Agbenin, J. O., & Buerkert, A. (2011). Vertical distribution of heavy metals in wastewater- irrigated vegetable garden soils of three West African cities. Nutrient Cycling in Agroecosystems, 89, 387–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Adah, C. A., Abah, J., Ubwa, S. T., & Ekele, S. (2013). Soil availability and uptake of some heavy metals by three staple vegetables commonly cultivated along the south bank of River Benue, Makurdi, Nigeria. International Journal of Environment and Bioenergy, 8, 56–67.Google Scholar
  3. Cui, Y. J., Zhu, Y. G., Zhai, R. H., Chen, D. Y., Huang, Y. Z., Qui, Y., & Liang, J. Z. (2004). Transfer of metals from near a smelter in Nanning, China. Environment International, 30, 785–791.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Fatoba, P. O., Adepoju, A. O., & Okewole, G. A. (2012). Heavy metal accumulation in the fruits of tomato and okra irrigated with industrial waste effluents. Journal of Industrial Pollution Control, 28(2), 103–107.Google Scholar
  5. Gupta, N., Khan, D. K., & Santra, S. G. (2012). Heavy metal accumulation in vegetables grown in a long-term wastewater-irrigated agricultural land of tropical India. Environmental Monitoring and Assessment, 184(11), 6673–6682.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Hallenbeck, W. H. (1993). Quantitative risk assessment for environmental and occupational health. Chelsea: Lewis publications.Google Scholar
  7. Ibrahim, K. O., Okunlola, I. A., & Abdurrahman, A. (2013). Trace metal indices in the characterization of hydrogeochemical condition of surface water along Asa River, Ilorn, Kwara State, Nigeria. International Journal of Geology, Earth and Environmental Science, 3(1), 29–35.Google Scholar
  8. Islam, E., Yang, X., He, Z., & Mahmood, Q. (2007). Assessing potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals in selected vegetables and food crops. Journal of Zhejiang University (Science), 8(1), 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Kabata-Pendias, A., & Mukherjeee, A. (2007). Trace elements from soil to human. Heidelberg: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Lanre-Iyanda, T. Y., & Adekunle, I. M. (2012). Assessment of heavy metals and their estimated daily intakes from two commonly consumed foods ound in Nigeria. African Journal of Food Agriculture Nutrition and Development, 12(3), 6156–6169.Google Scholar
  11. Ogunkunle, C. O., Fatoba, P. O., Awotoye, O. O., & Olorunmaiye, K. S. (2013). Root-shoot partitioning of Cu, Cr and Zn in Lycopersicum esculentum and Amaranthus hybridus grown in cement-polluted soil. Environmental and Experimental Biology, 11, 131–136.Google Scholar
  12. Oluwatosin, G. A., Adeoyolanu, A. O., Ojo, A. O., Are, K. S., Dauda, T. O., & Aduramigba-Modupe, V. O. (2010). Heavy metal uptake and accumulation by edible leafy vegetable (Amaranthus hybridus) grown on urban valley bottom soils in southwestern Nigeria. Soil and Sediment Contamination, 19, 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Orisakwe, O. E., Kanayochukwu, N. D., Nwadiuto, A. C., Daniel, D., & Onyinyechi, O. (2012). Evaluation of potential dietary toxicity of heavy metals of vegetables. Environmental and Analytical Toxicology. doi: 10.4172/2161-0525.1000136.Google Scholar
  14. Pinto, A. P., Mota, A. M., De Varennes, A., & Pinto, F. C. (2004). Influence of organic matter on the uptake of cadmium, zinc, copper and iron by sorghum plants. Science of the Total Environment, 326, 239–247.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Rattan, R. K., Datta, S. P., Chhonkar, P. K., Suribabu, K., & Singh, A. K. (2005). Long-term impact of irrigation with sewage effluents on heavy metal content in soils, crops and groundwater-a case study. Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment, 109, 310–322.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Reddy, K. R., Hettiarachci, H., Gangathulasi, J., Bogner, J. E., & Lagier, T. (2009). Geotechnical properties of synthetic municipal solid waste. International Journal of Geotechnical Engineering, 3(2), 429–438.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ruel, M. T., Minot, N. & Smith, L. (2004). Patterns and determinants of fruit and vegetable consumption in sub-Saharan Africa. Background paper for the Joint FAO/WHO Workshop on Fruit and vegetables for Health, 1-3 September, Kobe Japan.Google Scholar
  18. Singh, A., Sharma, R. K., Agrawal, M., & Marshall, F. M. (2010). Health risk assessment of heavy metals via dietary intake of foodstuffs from the wastewater irrigated site of a dry tropical area in India. Food and Chemical Toxicology, 48, 611–619.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Taylor, S. R., & McLennan, S. M. (1985). The continental crust: its composition and evolution. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  20. USEPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) (2002). Region 9, preliminary remediation goals. http://www.epa.gov/region09/waste/sfund/prg. Accessed 21 December 2013.
  21. Vasiliadou, S., & Dordas, C. (2009). Increased concentration of soil cadmium affects on plant growth, dry matter accumulation, Cd, and Zn uptake of different tobacco cultivars (Nicotiana tabacum L.). International Journal of Phytoremediation, 11(2), 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. WHO (World Health Organization). (1996). Trace elements in human nutrition and health. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  23. Zheng, N., Wang, Q. C., & Zheng, D. M. (2007). Health risk of Hg, Pb, Cd, Zn, and Cu to the inhabitants around Huludao zinc plant in China via consumption of vegetables. Science of the Total Environment, 383(1–3), 81–89.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Plant Biology, Plant Diversity and Environmental Biology UnitUniversity of IlorinIlorinNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Chemical and Process Engineering, Faculty of EngineeringUniversity of PeradeniyaPeradeniyaSri Lanka
  3. 3.Science and Engineering FacultyQueensland University of TechnologyBrisbaneAustralia

Personalised recommendations