Biological Invasions

, Volume 12, Issue 3, pp 515–530 | Cite as

The non-pest Australasian fungivore Cis bilamellatus Wood (Coleoptera: Ciidae) in northern Europe: spread dynamics, invasion success and ecological impact

  • Glenda M. Orledge
  • Paul A. Smith
  • Stuart E. Reynolds
Original Paper


Since its accidental introduction to south-east England during the nineteenth century, the invasive Australasian fungivore, Cis bilamellatus, has spread across England, Wales and Southern Scotland. Recently it has been recorded from Ireland, the Channel Islands and north-west France. On mainland Britain, an establishment phase spanning an estimated maximum of 45 years was followed by biphasic range expansion comprising a slow start of 1.6 km year−1 between 1910 and 1930, followed by 40 years of approximately linear spread of 13 km year−1. Northwards expansion now appears to be limited by sub-zero winter temperatures and is no longer apparent. Comparison with historic records of native ciids shows that this range expansion is genuine, rather than an artefact of recording effort or bias. It has no doubt been facilitated by C. bilamellatus’ ability to exploit a wide range of sometimes under-used fungal resources, by its favourable rate of increase, by its tolerance of both wet and dry conditions, and by a low rate of parasitoid attack. Although there is the potential for direct and indirect interaction between C. bilamellatus, native ciids and their shared parasitoids, the current ecological impact of C. bilamellatus appears to be low. It seems likely that C. bilamellatus will spread through Europe, limited primarily by resource availability and low winter temperatures.


Ciidae Ecological impact Fungivore Invasion success Saproxylic beetle Spread dynamics 



Our grateful thanks to all those who have generously contributed personal and collated ciid records used in this study, to museum and society trustees and staff for permitting and facilitating access to the collections in their care, and to Roy Anderson and Boris Büche for permission to use their unpublished first records of C. bilamellatus from Northern Ireland and France, respectively. We thank Mark Shaw and Richard Askew for parasitoid determinations, Mark Telfer for providing British records of Leistus rufomarginatus, Colin Johnson for ciid pin data from the Manchester Museum collection, John Lawrence for helpful correspondence and the Royal Entomological Society librarian, Val McAtear, for help with accessing the literature. We are grateful to Daniel Simberloff and two anonymous reviewers for their valuable comments on this manuscript. Maps were prepared using A. J. Morton’s DMAP software. Travel expenses for museum visits were met by a grant to GMO from the British Entomological and Natural History Society Research Fund.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Glenda M. Orledge
    • 1
  • Paul A. Smith
    • 2
  • Stuart E. Reynolds
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Biology and BiochemistryUniversity of BathBathUK
  2. 2.Bargoed, Mid GlamorganUK

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