Anderson-Butcher, D., Amorose, A., Iachini, A., & Ball, A. (2012). The development of the perceived school experiences scale. Research on Social Work Practice, 22(2), 186–194. https://doi.org/10.1177/1049731511419866.
Aspy, C. B., Vesely, S. K., Oman, R. F., Tolma, E., Rodine, S., Marshall, L., & Fluhr, J. (2012). School-related assets and youth risk behaviors: Alcohol consumption and sexual activity. Journal of School Health, 82(1), 3–10. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2011.00661.x.
Azagba, S., & Asbridge, M. (2013). School connectedness and susceptibility to smoking among adolescents in Canada. Nicotine and Tobacco Research, 15(8), 1458–1463. https://doi.org/10.1093/ntr/nts340.
Bond, L., Butler, H., Thomas, L., Carlin, J., Glover, S., Bowes, G., & Patton, G. (2007). Social and school connectedness in early secondary school as predictors of late teenage substance use, mental health, and academic outcomes. Journal of Adolescent Health, 40(4), 357.e9-357.e18. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2006.10.013.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Harvard University Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1989). Ecological systems theory. In R. Vasta (Ed.), Annals of child development (Vol. 6): Six theories of child development: Revised formulations and current issues (pp. 187–249). JAI Press.
Bronfenbrenner, U. (1994). Ecological models of human development. In T. Husen & T. N. Postlethwaite (Eds.), International encyclopedia of education (Vol. 3, 2nd ed., pp. 1643–1647). Oxford, UK: Pergamon Press/Elsevier Science.
Burkett, M. (2015). Sex (t) talk: A qualitative analysis of young adults’ negotiations of the pleasures and perils of sexting. Sexuality and Culture, 19(4), 835–863. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12119-015-9295-0.
Cameron, A., Luft, T., Dmytro, D., Kubiliene, N., & Chou, W. (2017). Adolescents negotiating romantic relationships in a culturally diverse, urban community. International Journal of Child, Youth and Family Studies, 8(1), 1–19. https://doi.org/10.18357/ijcyfs81201716739.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2009). School connectedness: Strategies for increasing protective factors among youth. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved from https://www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/protective/pdf/connectedness.pdf.
Choi, H., Van Ouytsel, J., & Temple, J. R. (2016). Association between sexting and sexual coercion among female adolescents. Journal of Adolescence, 53, 164–169. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2016.10.005.
Connolly, E. J., Schwartz, J. A., Nedelec, J. L., Beaver, K. M., & Barnes, J. C. (2015). Different slopes for different folks: Genetic influences on growth in delinquent peer association and delinquency during adolescence. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 44(7), 1413–1427. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-015-0299-8.
Dmytro, D., Luft, T., Jenkins, M., Hoard, R., & Cameron, C. A. (2013). Rural adolescent boys’ negotiating heterosexual romantic relationships: “We need to sacrifice our brains.” Canadian Journal of Counselling and Psychotherapy, 47(3), 361–382.
Dumas, T. M., Ellis, W. E., & Wolfe, D. A. (2012). Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviors in the context of peer group pressure and control. Journal of Adolescence, 35(4), 917–927. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2011.12.012.
Farrell, A. D., Thompson, E. L., & Mehari, K. R. (2017). Dimensions of peer influences and their relationship to adolescents’ aggression, other problem behaviors and prosocial behavior. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 46(6), 1351–1369. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0601-4.
Fix, R. L., Assini-Meytin, L. C., Harris, A. J., & Letourneau, E. J. (2021). Caregivers’ perceptions and responses to a new norm: The missing link in addressing adolescent sexting behaviors in the U.S. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 50, 575–588. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01704-z.
Handebo, S., Kebede, Y., & Morankar, S. N. (2018). Does social connectedness influence risky sexual behaviours? Finding from Ethiopian youths. International Journal of Adolescence and Youth, 23(2), 145–158. https://doi.org/10.1080/02673843.2017.1306448.
Higuita-Gutiérrez, L. F., & Cardona-Arias, J. A. (2017). Variables of the family, school, and social environment context that determine bullying in adolescents in Medellín, Colombia, 2014. Journal of School Violence, 16(1), 68–85. https://doi.org/10.1080/15388220.2015.1112807.
Hunter, S. C., Russell, Ki., Pagani, S., Munro, L., Marín-López, I., Knifton, L., & Hong, J. S. (2019). Individual, family, and school factors relating to sexting and bullying. https://doi.org/10.17605/OSF.IO/2EVG4.
Katz, J. (1995). Reconstructing masculinity in the locker room: The Mentors in Violence Prevention Project. Harvard Educational Review, 65, 163–175. https://doi.org/10.17763/haer.65.2.55533188520136u1.
Kiesner, J., Cadinu, M., Poulin, F., & Bucci, M. (2002). Group identification in early adolescence: Its relation with peer adjustment and its moderator effect on peer influence. Child Development, 73(1), 196–208. https://doi.org/10.1111/1467-8624.00400.
King, K. A., Vidourek, R. A., Davis, B., & McClellan, W. (2002). Increasing self-esteem and school connectedness through a multidimensional mentoring program. Journal of School Health, 72(7), 294–299. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1746-1561.2002.tb01336.x.
Kramer-Kuhn, A. M., & Farrell, A. D. (2016). The promotive and protective effects of family factors in the context of peer and community risks for aggression. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 45(4), 793–811. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0438-x.
Lee, J. R., & Darcy, K. M. (2021). Sexting: What’s law got to do with it? Archives of Sexual Behavor, 50, 563–573. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01727-6.
Lee, J., Hong, J. S., Resko, S. M., & Tripodi, S. J. (2018). Face-to-face bullying, cyberbullying, and multiple forms of substance use among school-age adolescents in the USA. School Mental Health, 10(1), 12–25. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12310-017-9231-6.
Lee, C. H., Moak, S., & Walker, J. T. (2016). Effects of self –control, social control and social learning on sexting behaviour among South Korean youths. Youth and Society, 48(2), 242–264. https://doi.org/10.1177/0044118X13490762.
Lippman, J. R., & Campbell, S. W. (2014). Damned if you do, damned if you don’t…If you’re a girl: Relational and normative contexts of adolescent sexting in the United States. Journal of Children and Media, 8(4), 371–386. https://doi.org/10.1080/17482798.2014.923009.
Madigan, S., Ly, A., Rash, C. L., Van Ouytsel, J., & Temple, J. R. (2018). Prevalence of multiple forms of sexting behavior among youth: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 172(4), 327–335. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.5314.
Marcum, C. D., Higgins, G. E., & Ricketts, M. L. (2014). Sexting behaviour among adolescents in rural North Carolina: A theoretical examination of low self-control and deviant peer association. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 5(2), 55–78.
Martinez-Prather, K., & Vandiver, D. M. (2014). Sexting among teenagers in the US: A retrospective analysis of identifying motivating factors, potential targets and the role of a capable guardian. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 8(1), 21–35.
Mayberry, M. L., Espelage, D. L., & Koenig, B. (2009). Multilevel modeling of direct effects and interactions of peers, parents, school, and community influences on adolescent substance use. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 38(8), 1038–1049. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10964-009-9425-9.
Medrano, J. L. J., Lopez Rosales, F., & Gámez-Guadix, M. (2018). Assessing the links of sexting, cybervictimization, depression, and suicidal ideation among university students. Archives of Suicide Research, 22(1), 153–164. https://doi.org/10.1080/13811118.2017.1304304.
Merrin, G. J., Hong, J. S., & Espelage, D. L. (2015). Are the risk and protective factors similar for gang-involved, pressured-to-join, and non-gang-involved youth? A social-ecological analysis. American Journal of Orthopsychiatry, 85(6), 522. https://doi.org/10.1037/ort0000094.
Mitchell, K. J., Finkelhor, D., Jones, L. M., & Wolak, J. (2012). Prevalence and characteristics of youth sexting: A national study. Pediatrics, 129(1), 13–20. https://doi.org/10.1542/peds.2011-1730.
Morelli, M., Bianchi, D., Baiocco, R., Pezzuti, L., & Chirumbolo, A. (2016). Sexting, psychological distress and dating violence among adolescents and young adults. Psicothema, 28(2), 137–142. https://doi.org/10.7334/psicothema2015.193.
Mori, C., Cooke, J. E., Temple, J. R., Ly, A., Lu, Y., Anderson, N., Rash, C., & Madigan, S. (2020). The prevalence of sexting behaviors among emerging adults: A meta-analysis. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 49, 1103–1119. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-020-01656-4.
Mori, C., Temple, J. R., Browne, D., & Madigan, S. (2019). Association of sexting with sexual behaviors and mental health among adolescents: A systematic review and meta-analysis. JAMA Pediatrics, 173(8), 770–779. https://doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2019.1658.
Muthén, L. K., & Muthén, B. O. (1998–2012). Mplus user’s guide (Seventh ed.). Los Angeles, CA.
National Statistics. (2017). Summary statistics for attainment, leaver destinations and healthy living No. 7. (2017th ed.). Scottish Government.
O’Connor, K., Drouin, M., Yergens, N., & Newsham, G. (2017). Sexting legislation in the United States and abroad: A call for uniformity. International Journal of Cyber Criminology, 11(2), 218–245. https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.1037397.
O’Connor, R. C., Rasmussen, S., Miles, J., & Hawton, K. (2009). Self-harm in adolescents: Self-report survey in schools in Scotland. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 194(1), 68–72. https://doi.org/10.1192/bjp.bp.107.047704.
Ojeda, M., Del Rey, R., & Hunter, S. C. (2019). Longitudinal relationships between sexting and involvement in both bullying and cyberbullying. Journal of Adolescence, 77, 81–89. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.10.003.
Patterson, G. R., DeBaryshe, B., & Ramsey, E. (1990). A developmental perspective on antisocial behaviour. American Psychologist, 44, 329–335. https://doi.org/10.1037//0003-066x.44.2.329.
Resnick, M. D., Bearman, P. S., Blum, R. W., Bauman, K. E., Harris, K. M., Jones, J., Tabor, J., Beuhring, T., Sieving, R. E., Shew, M., Ireland, M., Bearinger, L. H., & Udry, J. R. (1997). Protecting adolescents from harm: Findings from the National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health. Journal of the American Medical Association, 278(10), 823–832. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.278.10.823.
Richardson, H. A., Simmering, M. J., & Sturman, M. C. (2009). A tale of three perspectives: Examining post hoc statistical techniques for detection and correction of common method variance. Organizational Research Methods, 12(4), 762–800. https://doi.org/10.1177/1094428109332834.
Roche, K. M., Mekos, D., Alexander, C. S., Astone, N. M., Bandeen-Roche, K., & Ensminger, M. E. (2005). Parenting influences on early sex initiation among adolescents: How neighborhood matters. Journal of Family Issues, 26(1), 32–54. https://doi.org/10.1177/0192513X04265943.
Russell, K., Rasmussen, S., & Hunter, S. C. (2018). Insomnia and nightmares as markers of risk for suicidal ideation in young people: Investigating the role of defeat and entrapment. Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine, 14(5), 775–784. https://doi.org/10.5664/jcsm.7104.
Sabey, A. K., Rauer, A. J., Haselschwerdt, M. L., & Volling, B. (2018). Beyond “lots of hugs and kisses”: Expressions of parental love from parents and their young children in two-parent, financially stable families. Family Process, 57(3), 737–751. https://doi.org/10.1111/famp.12327.
Shneyderman, Y., & Schwartz, S. J. (2013). Contextual and intrapersonal predictors of adolescent risky sexual behavior and outcomes. Health Education and Behavior, 40(4), 400–414. https://doi.org/10.1177/1090198112447800.
Strassberg, D. S., McKinnon, R. K., Sustaíta, M. A., & Rullo, J. (2013). Sexting by high school students: An exploratory and descriptive study. Archives of Sexual Behavior, 42(1), 15–21. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10508-012-9969-8.
Stride C. B., Gardner S., Catley, N., & Thomas, F. (2015). Mplus code for mediation, moderation, and moderated mediation models. http://www.offbeat.group.shef.ac.uk/FIO/mplusmedmod.htm
Van Ouytsel, J., Van Gool, E., Ponnet, K., & Walrave, M. (2014). Brief report: The association between adolescents’ characteristics and engagement in sexting. Journal of Adolescence, 37(8), 1387–1391. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.10.004.
Van Ouytsel, J., Van Gool, E., Walrave, M., Ponnet, K., & Peeters, E. (2017). Sexting: Adolescents perception of the applications used for, motives for, and consequences of sexting. Journal of Youth Studies, 20(4), 446–470. https://doi.org/10.1080/13676261.2016.1241865.
Villacampa, C. (2017). Teen sexting: Prevalence, characteristics and legal treatment. International Journal of Law, Crime and Justice, 49, 10–21. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlcj.2017.01.002.
Walker, S., Sanci, L., & Temple-Smith, M. (2013). Sexting: Young women’s and men’s views on its nature and origins. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(6), 697–701. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jadohealth.2013.01.026.
Walrave, M., Heirman, W., & Hallam, L. (2014). Under pressure to sext? Applying the theory of planned behaviour to adolescent sexting. Behaviour and Information Technology, 33(1), 86–98. https://doi.org/10.1080/0144929X.2013.837099.
Williams, L. R., & Anthony, E. K. (2015). A model of positive family and peer relationships on adolescent functioning. Journal of Child and Family Studies, 24(3), 658–667. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10826-013-9876-1.