It Takes a Village: The Effects of 10th Grade College-Going Expectations of Students, Parents, and Teachers Four Years Later
- 866 Downloads
Adolescents are surrounded by people who have expectations about their college-going potential. Yet, few studies have examined the link between these multiple sources of college-going expectations and the actual status of students in postsecondary education years later. The study draws on data collected in the 2002–2006 Educational Longitudinal Study and employs an underutilized statistical technique (cross-classified multilevel modeling) to account for teacher reports on overlapping groups of students (typical of high school research). Results showed that positive expectations of students, parents, English, and mathematics teachers in the 10th grade each uniquely predicted postsecondary status 4 years later. As a group, the four sources of expectations explained greater variance in postsecondary education than student characteristics such as socioeconomic status and academic performance. This suggests positive expectations are additive and promotive for students regardless of their risk status. Teacher expectations were also found to be protective for low income students. Implications for future expectancy research and equity-focused interventions are discussed.
KeywordsAdolescents Expectations Postsecondary education Cross-classified multilevel modeling
This research was supported by a grant from the American Education Research Association which receives funds from its “AERA grants program” from the National Science Foundation under its NSF Grant #DRL-0941014. Opinions reflect those of the authors and do not necessarily reflect those of the granting agencies. The authors would also like to thank Rhona S. Weinstein for her contribution to the study.
- Aud, S., Fox, M., & KewalRamani, A. (2010). Status and trends in the education of racial and ethnic groups (NCES 2010–015). Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
- Bronfenbrenner, U. (1979). The ecology of human development: Experiments by nature and design. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
- Brophy, J., & Good, T. (1974). Teacher-student relationships: Causes and consequences. New York: Holt, Rineholt, & Winston.Google Scholar
- Dishion, T. J., Piehler, T. F., & Myers, M. W. (2008). Dynamics and ecology of adolescent peer influence. In M. J. Prinstein & K. A. Dodge (Eds.), Understanding peer influence in children and adolescents (pp. 45–71). New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
- Dweck, C. S. (2000). Self-theories: Their role in motivation, personality, and development. Philadelphia: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
- Hox, J. J. (2010). Multilevel analysis. Techniques and applications. 2nd edn. New York: Routledge. Google Scholar
- Julian, T., & Kominiski, R. (2011). Education and synthetic work-life earnings estimates: American community survey reports. (ACS-14). Washington DC: U.S. Census Bureau Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/prod/2011pubs/acs-14.pdf.
- Jussim, L., Robustelli, S., & Cain, T. (2009). Teacher expectations and self-fulfilling prophecies. In A. Wigfield & K. Wentzel (Eds.), Handbook of motivation at school (pp. 349–380). Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- King, J. (1996). The Decision to go to college: Attitudes and experiences associated with college attendance among low-income students. Washington, DC: College Board.Google Scholar
- LaRusso, M. D., Jones, S. M., Brown, J. L., & Aber, J. L. (2010). School context and microcontexts: The complexities of studying school settings. In L. M. Dinella (Ed.), Conducting psychology research in school-based settings. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.Google Scholar
- Lomax, R. G., & Hahs-Vaughn, D. L. (2012). An introduction to statistical concepts (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
- McGowan, M. O., & Lindgren, J. (2006). Testing the model minority myth. Northwestern University Law Review, 100, 331–378.Google Scholar
- Pollard, K. (2011). Gender gap in college enrollment and graduation. Population Reference Bureau. Retrieved from http://www.prb.org/Articles/2011/gender-gap-in-education.aspx.
- Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: Applications and data analysis methods. Newbury Park: Sage.Google Scholar
- Rosenthal, R., & Jacobson, L. (1968). Pygmalion in the classroom. New York: Holt, Rinehart & Winston. Google Scholar
- Rutter, M. (1995). Psychosocial adversity: Risk, resilience, and recovery. Southern African Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry., 7, 75–88.Google Scholar
- Tavani, C., & Losh, S. (2003). Motivation, self-confidence, and expectations as predictors of the academic performances among our high school students. Child Study Journal, 33, 141–151.Google Scholar
- United States Census. (2010). College Enrollment of Recent High School Completers. Retrieved from http://www.census.gov/compendia/statab/2012/tables/12s0276.pdf.
- United States Department of Education, National Center for Education Statistics. (2012). Digest of education statistics, 2011 (NCES 2012-001),Chapter 3. Retrieved from http://nces.ed.gov/fastfacts/display.asp?id=98.
- Weinstein, R. S. (2002). Reaching Higher: The power of expectations in schooling. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar