Relationships Between Illness Perception and Post-traumatic Growth Among Newly Diagnosed HIV-Positive Men Who have Sex with Men in China
- 234 Downloads
Newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men (NHMSM) are at high risk of mental health problems but may also develop post-traumatic growth (PTG). According to the Common Sense Model, illness perception (including both cognitive representation and emotional representation) affects coping and health-related outcomes. A cross-sectional survey was conducted to examine the associations between illness perception and PTG among 225 NHMSM in Chengdu, China. Linear regression analyses indicated that the constructs of emotional representation subscale (β = −0.49) and five cognitive representation subscales (timeline, consequence, identity, attribution to god’s punishment/will, and attribution to chance/luck) (β = −0.13 to −0.37) were negative correlates of PTG, while four other constructs of cognitive representation (coherence, treatment control, personal control, and attribution to carelessness) were positive correlates (β = 0.15 to 0.51). No moderating effects were observed. The associations between five cognitive representation subscales and PTG were fully-mediated via emotional representation. The results indicate that interventions promoting PTG among NHMSM are warranted and should alter illness perception, emotional representation in particular. Future studies should clarify relationships between cognitive representation and emotional representation, and extend similar research to other health-related outcomes and HIV-positive populations.
KeywordsPost-traumatic growth Illness perception Common Sense Model Men who have sex with men HIV-positive
This study is supported by internal funding of Centre for Health Behaviours Research, The Chinese University of Hong Kong.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
Research Involving Human Participants
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Survey and Behavioural Research Ethics Committee, the Chinese University of Hong Kong and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
Informed consent was obtained from all individual participants included in the study.
- 7.National Health and Family Planning Commission of The People’s Republic of China. 2014. China AIDS Response Progress Report. http://www.unaids.org/sites/default/files/documents/CHN_narrative_report_2014.pdf. 2014.
- 8.World Health Organization. Prevention and treatment of HIV and other sexually transmitted infections among men who have sex with men and transgender people: recommendations for a public health approach. Geneva: World Press; 2011.Google Scholar
- 19.Sikkema KJ, Hansen NB, Kochman A, Santos J, Watt MH, Wilson PA, et al. The development and feasibility of a brief risk reduction intervention for newly hiv-diagnosed men who have sex with men. J Clin Psychol. 2011;39(6):717–32.Google Scholar
- 20.Yu NX, Chen L, Ye Z, Li X, Lin D. Impacts of making sense of adversity on depression, posttraumatic stress disorder, and posttraumatic growth among a sample of mainly newly diagnosed HIV-positive Chinese young homosexual men: the mediating role of resilience. AIDS Care. 2017;29(1):79–85.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 27.Li H, Tucker J, Holroyd E, Zhang J, Jiang B. Suicidal ideation, resilience, and healthcare implications for newly diagnosed HIV-positive men who have sex with men in China: a qualitative study. Arch Sex Behav. 2016;46:1–10.Google Scholar
- 44.Antoni MH, Lehman JM, Kilbourn KM, Boyers AE, Culver JL, Alferi SM, et al. Cognitive-behavioral stress management intervention decreases the prevalence of depression and enhances benefit finding among women under treatment for early-stage breast cancer. Health Psychol. 2001;20(1):20–32.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 52.Leventhal H, Benyamini Y, Brownlee S, Diefenbach M, Leventhal EA, Miller LP, et al. Illness representations: theoretical foundations. In: Weinman J, Petrie K, editors. Perceptions of health and illness. London: Harwood Publishers; 1997. p. 19–46.Google Scholar
- 54.Reynolds N, Sanzero EL, Nicholas P, Corless I, Kirksey K, Hamilton M, et al. HIV illness representation as a predictor of self-care management and health outcomes: a multi-site. Cross-cult Stud AIDS Behav. 2009;13(2):258–67.Google Scholar
- 56.Catunda C, Seidl EMF, Lemétayer F. Illness perception and quality of life of HIV-positive persons: mediation effects of tenacious and flexible goal pursuit. Psychol Health Med. 2016;22:1–9.Google Scholar
- 63.Davies MJ, Heller S, Skinner TC, Campbell MJ, Carey ME, Cradock S, et al. Effectiveness of the diabetes education and self management for ongoing and newly diagnosed (DESMOND) programme for people with newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes: cluster randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2008;336(7642):491–5.PubMedPubMedCentralCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 69.Sriprasong S, Hanucharurnkul S, Panpukdee O, Krittayaphong R, Pongthavornkamol K, Vorapongsathorn T. Functional status model: an empirical test among discharged acute myocardial infarction patients. Thai J Nurs Res. 2010;13(4):268–84.Google Scholar
- 81.CGCO. Chengdu Gay Care Organization (CGCO) Annual Report of 2009. Chengdu: Chengdu Gay Care Organization. 2010.Google Scholar
- 85.Li J, Mo PK, Kahler CW, Lau JT, Du M, Dai Y, et al. Prevalence and associated factors of depressive and anxiety symptoms among HIV-infected men who have sex with men in China. AIDS Care. 2015;28:1–6.Google Scholar
- 97.Himelhoch S, Medoff D, Maxfield J, Dihmes S, Dixon L, Robinson C, et al. Telephone based cognitive behavioral therapy targeting major depression among urban dwelling, low income people living with HIV/AIDS: results of a randomized controlled trial. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(8):2756–64.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- 101.Masomzadeh K, Moradi A, Parhoon H, Parhoon K, Mirmotahari M. Effectiveness of mindfulness-based Stress reduction (MBSR) on anxiety, depression and post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms in patients with HIV/AIDS. Int J Behav Sci. 2017;10(3):129–34.Google Scholar