Padian NS, Buve A, Balkus J, Serwadda D, Cates W Jr. Biomedical interventions to prevent HIV infection: evidence, challenges, and way forward. Lancet. 2008;372(9638):585–99.
Sturt Amy S, Dokubo Emily K, Sint Tin T. Antiretroviral therapy (ART) for treating HIV infection in ART-eligible pregnant women. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews. 2010. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD008440/abstract. Accessed 2 Oct 2012.
Rey D. Post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV infection. Expert Rev Anti Infect Ther. 2011;9(4):431–42.
Kippax S, Race K. Sustaining safe practice: twenty years on. Soc Sci Med. 2003;57(1):1–12.
Kippax S, Stephenson N. Beyond the distinction between biomedical and social dimensions of HIV prevention through the lens of a social public health. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(5):789–99.
Havlir D, Beyrer C. The beginning of the end of AIDS? N Engl J Med. 2012;367(8):685–7.
Anderson PL, Glidden DV, Liu A, et al. Emtricitabine-tenofovir concentrations and pre-exposure prophylaxis efficacy in men who have sex with men. Sci Transl Med. 2012;4(151):1–8.
Okwundu CI, Uthman OA, Okoromah CA. Antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for preventing HIV in high-risk individuals. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2012. http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/14651858.CD007189.pub3/abstract. Accessed 2 Oct 2012.
Food and Drug Administration (FDA). FDA approves first drug for reducing the risk of sexually acquired HIV infection. Silver Spring, MD: FDA. 2012. http://www.fda.gov/NewsEvents/Newsroom/PressAnnouncements/ucm312210.htm. Accessed 2 Oct 2012.
Center for Disease Control (CDC). Interim guidance: Pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in men who have sex with men. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2011;60(3):65–8.
Center for Disease Control (CDC). Interim guidance: pre-exposure prophylaxis for the prevention of HIV infection in heterosexually active adults. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2012;61(31):586–9.
Rossi L. Daily HIV prevention approaches didn’t work for African women in the VOICE study. Atlanta: MTN: Microbicides Trials Network. 2013. http://www.mtnstopshiv.org/sites/default/files/attachments/MTN_VOICE_Release_FINAL_.pdf. Accessed 8 May 2013.
ECDC. Thematic report: HIV treatment, care and support: monitoring implementation of the Dublin Declaration on partnership to fight HIV/AIDS in Europe and central Asia: 2012 progress report. Stockholm: European Centre for Disease and Prevention Control. 2013.
McCormack S, Fidler S, Fischer M. The British HIV Association/British Association for Sexual Health and HIV position statement on pre-exposure prophylaxis in the UK. Int J STD AIDS. 2012;23(1):1–4.
European Medicines Agency (EMA). Reflection paper on the non-clinical and clinical development for oral and topical HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). London: EMA. 2012. http://www.ema.europa.eu/docs/en_GB/document_library/Scientific_guideline/2012/03/WC500124054.pdf. Accessed 2 Oct 2012.
Cohen MS, McCauley M, Gamble TR. HIV treatment as prevention and HPTN 052. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7(2):99–105.
BHIVA. BHIVA guidelines for the treatment of HIV-1 positive adults with antiretroviral therapy 2012. London: British HIV Association; 2012.
Panel on Antiretroviral Guidelines for Adults and Adolescents. Guidelines for the use of antiretroviral agents in HIV-1-infected adults and adolescents: Department of Health and Human Services, Office of AIDS Research Advisory Council (OARAC).
WHO. 2013. WHO issues new HIV recommendations calling for earlier treatment. World Health Organisation. http://www.who.int/mediacentre/news/releases/2013/new_hiv_recommendations_20130630/en/index.html. Accessed 1 July 2013.
BHIVA, EAGA. Position statement on the use of antiretroviral therapy to reduce HIV transmission January 2013, British HIV Association (BHIVA) and the Expert Advisory Group on AIDS (EAGA). HIV Med. 2013;14(5):259–62.
Williams BG, Lima V, Gouws E. Modelling the impact of antiretroviral therapy on the epidemic of HIV. Curr HIV Res. 2011;9(6):367–82.
van de Laar MJ, Pharris A. Treatment as prevention: will it work? Euro Surveillance. 2011;16(48):1–3.
Nguyen VK, Bajos N, Dubois-Arber F, O’Malley J, Pirkle CM. Remedicalizing an epidemic: from HIV treatment as prevention to HIV treatment is prevention. AIDS. 2011;25(3):291–3.
International Collaboration on HIV Optimism. HIV treatments optimism among gay men: an international perspective. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003;32(5):545–50.
Crepaz N, Hart TA, Marks G. Highly active antiretroviral therapy and sexual risk behavior: a meta-analytic review. JAMA. 2004;292(2):224–36.
Chen Y. Treatment-related optimistic beliefs and risk of HIV transmission: a review of recent findings (2009–2012) in an era of treatment as prevention. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2013;10(1):79–88.
Vernazza PL. The debate continues: does ‘undetectable’ mean ‘uninfectious’? HIV Ther. 2009;3(2):113–6.
Rojas Castro D, Fugon L, Bourgeois-Fisson E, Le Gall JM, Barbier F, Spire B. The “Swiss Statement”: Who knows about it? How do they know? What are its effects on people living with HIV/AIDS? AIDS Care. 2012;24(8):1013–9.
Persson A. Reflections on the Swiss Consensus Statement in the context of qualitative interviews with heterosexuals living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2010;22(12):1487–92.
de Wit JBF, Aggleton P, Myers T, Crewe M. The rapidly changing paradigm of HIV prevention: time to strengthen social and behavioural approaches. Health Educ Res. 2011;26(3):381–92.
Diallo DD. 2013. Coalition of U.S. Women’s health and HIV advocates call for accelerated us government plan for demonstrating feasibility of PrEP for women. Working Group on U.S. Women and PrEP. http://www.avac.org/ht/a/GetDocumentAction/i/49158. Accessed 1 July 2013.
Amico KR. Adherence to pre-exposure chemoprophylaxis: the behavioral bridge from efficacy to effectiveness. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7(6):542–8.
Golub SA, Operario D, Gorbach PM. Pre-exposure prophylaxis state of the science: empirical analogies for research and implementation. Curr HIV/AIDS Rep. 2010;7(4):201–9.
Severy LJ, Newcomer S. Critical issues in contraceptive and STI acceptability research. J Soc Issues. 2005;61(1):45–65.
Mensch BS, van der Straten A, Katzen LL. Acceptability in microbicide and PrEP trials: current status and a reconceptualization. Curr Opin HIV AIDS. 2012;7(6):534–41.
von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC. The strengthening the reporting of observational studies in epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. PLoS Med. 2007;4(10):e296.
Guest G, Shattuck D, Johnson L, et al. Changes in sexual risk behavior among participants in a PrEP HIV prevention trial. Sex Transm Infect. 2008;35(12):1002–8.
Guest G, Shattuck D, Johnson L, et al. Acceptability of PrEP for HIV prevention among women at high risk for HIV. J Womens Health. 2010;19(4):791–8.
Ware NC, Wyatt MA, Haberer JE, et al. What’s love got to do with it? Explaining adherence to oral antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-serodiscordant couples. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;59(5):463–8.
Minnis AM, Gandham S, Richardson BA, et al. Adherence and acceptability in MTN 001: a randomized cross-over trial of daily oral and topical tenofovir for HIV prevention in women. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(2):737–47.
Mutua G, Sanders E, Mugo P, et al. Safety and adherence to intermittent pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for HIV-1 in African men who have sex with men and female sex workers. PLoS One. 2012;7(4):e33103.
Van der Elst EM, Mbogua J, Operario D, et al. High acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis but challenges in adherence and use: qualitative insights from a phase I trial of intermittent and daily PrEP in at-risk populations in Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2013;17(6):2162–72.
Hosek S, Siberry G, Bell M, et al. The acceptability and feasibility of an HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) trial with young men who have sex with men (YMSM). J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012;62(4):447–56.
Amico KR, McMahan V, Goicochea P, et al. Supporting study product use and accuracy in self-report in the iPrEx study: next step counseling and neutral assessment. AIDS and Behavior. 2012;16(5):1243–59.
Barash EA, Golden M. Awareness and use of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among attendees of a Seattle gay pride event and sexually transmitted disease clinic. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2010;24(11):689–91.
Brooks RA, Kaplan RL, Lieber E, Landovitz RJ, Lee SJ, Leibowitz AA. Motivators, concerns, and barriers to adoption of preexposure prophylaxis for HIV prevention among gay and bisexual men in HIV-serodiscordant male relationships. AIDS Care. 2011;23(9):1136–45.
Brooks RA, Landovitz RJ, Kaplan RL, Lieber E, Lee SJ, Barkley TW. Sexual risk behaviors and acceptability of HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among HIV-negative gay and bisexual men in serodiscordant relationships: a mixed methods study. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2012;26(2):87–94.
Golub SA, Kowalczyk W, Weinberger CL, Parsons JT. Pre-exposure prophylaxis and predicted condom use among high-risk men who have sex with men. J AIDS. 2010;54(5):548–55.
Krakower DS, Mimiaga MJ, Rosenberger JG, et al. Limited awareness and low immediate uptake of pre-exposure prophylaxis among men who have sex with men using an internet social networking site. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e33119.
Mansergh G, Koblin BA, Colfax GN, McKirnan DJ, Flores SA, Hudson SM. Preefficacy use and sharing of antiretroviral medications to prevent sexually-transmitted HIV infection among us men who have sex with men. J AIDS. 2010;55(2):e14–6.
Mimiaga MJ, Case P, Johnson CV, Safren SA, Mayer KH. Pre-exposure antiretroviral prophylaxis attitudes in high-risk Boston area men who report having sex with men: limited knowledge and experience but potential for increased utilization after education. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009;50(1):77–83.
Nodin N, Carballo-Dieguez A, Ventuneac AM, Balan IC, Remien R. Knowledge and acceptability of alternative HIV prevention bio-medical products among MSM who bareback. AIDS Care. 2008;20(1):106–15.
Galindo GR, Walker JJ, Hazelton P, et al. Community member perspectives from transgender women and men who have sex with men on pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: implications for implementation. Implement Sci. 2012;7(1):116.
Saberi P, Gamarel KE, Neilands TB, et al. Ambiguity, ambivalence, and apprehensions of taking HIV-1 pre-exposure prophylaxis among male couples in San Francisco: a mixed methods study. PLoS One. 2012;7(11):e50061.
Aghaizu A, Mercey D, Copas A, Johnson AM, Hart G, Nardone A. Who would use PrEP? Factors associated with intention to use among MSM in London: a community survey. Sex Transm Infect. 2013;89(3):207–11.
Leonardi M, Lee E, Tan DH. Awareness of, usage of and willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among men in downtown Toronto, Canada. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22(12):738–41.
Lorente N, Fugon L, Carrieri MP, et al. Acceptability of an “on-demand” pre-exposure HIV prophylaxis trial among men who have sex with men living in France. AIDS Care. 2012;24(24):468–77.
Holt M, Murphy DA, Callander D, et al. Willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis and the likelihood of decreased condom use are both associated with unprotected anal intercourse and the perceived likelihood of becoming HIV positive among Australian gay and bisexual men. Sex Transm Infect. 2012;88(4):258–63.
Poynten IM, Jin F, Prestage GP, Kaldor JM, Imrie J, Grulich AE. Attitudes towards new HIV biomedical prevention technologies among a cohort of HIV-negative gay men in Sydney, Australia. HIV Med. 2010;11(4):282–8.
van Griensven F, Thienkrua W, Sukwicha W, et al. Sex frequency and sex planning among men who have sex with men in Bangkok, Thailand: implications for pre- and post-exposure prophylaxis against HIV infection. J Int AIDS Soc. 2010;13(13):1–14.
Jackson T, Huang A, Chen H, Gao X, Zhong X, Zhang Y. Cognitive, psychosocial, and sociodemographic predictors of willingness to use HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among Chinese men who have sex with men. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(7):1853–61.
Zhou F, Gao L, Li S, et al. Willingness to accept HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis among Chinese men who have sex with men. PLoS One. 2012;7(3):e32329.
Galea JT, Kinsler JJ, Salazar X, et al. Acceptability of pre-exposure prophylaxis as an HIV prevention strategy: Barriers and facilitators to pre-exposure prophylaxis uptake among at-risk Peruvian populations. Int J STD AIDS. 2011;22(5):256–62.
Eisingerich AB, Wheelock A, Gomez GB, Garnett GP, Dybul MR, Piot PK. Attitudes and acceptance of oral and parenteral HIV preexposure prophylaxis among potential user groups: a multinational study. PLoS One. 2012;7(1):e28238.
Whiteside YO, Harris T, Scanlon C, Clarkson S, Duffus W. Self-perceived risk of HIV infection and attitudes about pre-exposure prophylaxis among sexually transmitted disease clinic attendees in South Carolina. AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2011;25(6):365–70.
Smith DK, Toledo L, Smith DJ, Adams MA, Rothenberg R. Attitudes and program preferences of African–American urban young adults about pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP). AIDS Educ Prev. 2012;24(5):408–21.
Dombrowski JC, Harrington RD, Fleming M, Golden MR. Treatment as prevention: are HIV clinic patients interested in starting antiretroviral therapy to decrease HIV transmission? AIDS Patient Care STDs. 2010;24(12):747–50.
Kalichman SC, Eaton L, Cherry C. Sexually transmitted infections and infectiousness beliefs among people living with HIV/AIDS: implications for HIV treatment as prevention. HIV Med. 2010;11(8):502–9.
Holt M, Murphy D, Callander D, et al. HIV-negative and HIV-positive gay men’s attitudes to medicines, HIV treatments and antiretroviral-based prevention. AIDS Behav. 2012;17(6):2156–61.
Amico K, McMahan V, Goicochea P, et al. Supporting study product use and accuracy in self-report in the iPrEx study: next step counseling and neutral assessment. AIDS Behav. 2012;16(5):1243–59.
Puro V, Palummieri A, de Carli G, Piselli P, Ippolito G. Attitudes towards antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) prescription among HIV specialists. BMC Infect Dis. 2013;13(217):1–8.
Mascolini M. Tenofovir PrEP reduces HIV transmission risk by up to 99%: adherence critical to protection from HIV in partners PrEP trial of TDF and TDF/FTC 19th Conference on Retroviruses and Opportunistic Infections. Washington: Seattle; 2012.
Bourne A, Dodds C, Weatherburn P, et al. Plus one: HIV sero-discordant relationships among black African people in England. London: Sigma Research; 2011.
Roberts ET, Matthews DD. HIV and chemoprophylaxis, the importance of considering social structures alongside biomedical and behavioral intervention. Soc Sci Med. 2012;75(9):1555–61.