Balossino, R., F. Gervaso, F. Migliavacca, and G. Dubini. Effects of different stent designs on local hemodynamics in stented arteries. J. Biomech. 41:1053–1061, 2008.
Berry, J. L., A. Santamarina, J. E. Moore, Jr., S. Roychowdhury, and W. D. Routh. Experimental and computational flow evaluation of coronary stents. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 28:386–398, 2000.
Chen, H. Y., J. Hermiller, A. K. Sinha, M. Sturek, L. Zhu, and G. S. Kassab. Effects of stent sizing on endothelial and vessel wall stress: potential mechanisms for in-stent restenosis. J. Appl. Physiol. 106:1686–1691, 2009.
Chiastra, C., F. Migliavacca, M. A. Martinez, and M. Malve. On the necessity of modelling fluid-structure interaction for stented coronary arteries. J. Mech. Behav. Biomed. Mater. 34:217–230, 2014.
DePaola, N., M. A. Gimbrone, P. F. Davies, and C. F. Dewey. Vascular endothelium responds to fluid shear stress gradients. Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol. 12:1254–1257, 1992.
Dolan, J. M., J. Kolega, and H. Meng. High wall shear stress and spatial gradients in vascular pathology: a review. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41:1411–1427, 2013.
Duraiswamy, N., J. M. Cesar, R. T. Schoephoerster, and J. E. Moore, Jr. Effects of stent geometry on local flow dynamics and resulting platelet deposition in an in vitro model. Biorheology 45:547–561, 2008.
Duraiswamy, N., R. T. Schoephoerster, and J. J. E. Moore. Comparison of near-wall hemodynamic parameters in stented artery models. J. Biomech. Eng. 131:061006, 2009.
Garasic, J. M., E. R. Edelman, J. C. Squire, P. Seifert, M. S. Williams, and C. Rogers. Stent and artery geometry determine intimal thickening independent of arterial injury. Circulation 101:812–818, 2000.
Gundert, T. J., R. J. Dholakia, D. McMahon, and J. F. LaDisa. Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of equivalency in hemodynamic alterations between driver, integrity, and similar stents implanted into an idealized coronary artery. J. Med. Devices 7:011004, 2013.
Gundert, T. J., A. L. Marsden, Y. Weiguang, D. Marks, and J. LaDisa. Identification of hemodynamically optimal coronary stent designs based on vessel caliber. Trans. Biomed. Eng. 59:1992–2002, 2012.
Gundert, T. J., A. L. Marsden, W. Yang, and J. F. LaDisa, Jr. Optimization of cardiovascular stent design using computational fluid dynamics. J. Biomech. Eng. 134:011002, 2012.
Gundert, T. J., S. C. Shadden, A. R. Williams, B.-K. Koo, J. A. Feinstein, and J. F. LaDisa, Jr. A rapid and computationally inexpensive method to virtually implant current and next-generation stents into subject-specific computational fluid dynamics models. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 39:1423–1437, 2011.
He, Y., N. Duraiswamy, A. O. Frank, and J. E. Moore, Jr. Blood flow in stented arteries: a parametric comparison of strut design patterns in three dimensions. J. Biomech. Eng. 127:637–647, 2005.
Hsiao, H.-M., Y.-H. Chiu, K.-H. Lee, and C.-H. Lin. Computational modeling of effects of intravascular stent design on key mechanical and hemodynamic behavior. Comput. Aided Des. 44:757–765, 2012.
Jiménez, J. M., and P. F. Davies. Hemodynamically driven stent strut design. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 37:1483–1494, 2009.
Kastrati, A., J. Mehilli, J. Dirschinger, F. Dotzer, H. Schühlen, F.-J. Neumann, M. Fleckenstein, C. Pfafferott, M. Seyfarth, and A. Schömig. Intracoronary stenting and angiographic results: strut thickness effect on restenosis outcome (ISAR-STEREO) trial. Circulation 103:2816–2821, 2001.
Kastrati, A., J. Mehilli, J. Dirschinger, J. Pache, K. Ulm, H. Schühlen, M. Seyfarth, C. Schmitt, R. Blasini, F.-J. Neumann, and A. Schömig. Restenosis after coronary placement of various stent types. Am. J. Cardiol. 87:34–39, 2001.
Keller, B. K., C. M. Amatruda, D. R. Hose, J. Gunn, P. V. Lawford, G. Dubini, F. Migliavacca, and A. J. Narracott. Contribution of mechanical and fluid stresses to the magnitude of in-stent restenosis at the level of individual stent struts. Cardiovasc. Eng. Technol. 5:164–175, 2014.
Kolandaivelu, K., R. Swaminathan, W. J. Gibson, V. B. Kolachalama, K. L. Nguyen-Ehrenreich, V. L. Giddings, L. Coleman, G. K. Wong, and E. R. Edelman. Stent thrombogenicity early in high-risk interventional settings is driven by stent design and deployment and protected by polymer-drug coatings. Circulation 123:1400–1409, 2011.
Ku, D. N. Blood flow in arteries. Annu. Rev. Fluid Mech. 29:399–434, 1997.
LaDisa, Jr., J. F., L. E. Olson, H. A. Douglas, D. C. Warltier, J. R. Kersten, and P. S. Pagel. Alterations in regional vascular geometry produced by theoretical stent implantation influence distributions of wall shear stress: analysis of a curved coronary artery using 3D computational fluid dynamics modeling. Biomed. Eng. 5:40, 2006.
LaDisa, J. F., L. E. Olson, I. Guler, D. A. Hettrick, S. H. Audi, J. R. Kersten, D. C. Warltier, and P. S. Pagel. Stent design properties and deployment ratio influence indexes of wall shear stress: a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics investigation within a normal artery. J. Appl. Physiol. 97:424–430, 2004.
LaDisa, Jr., J. F., L. E. Olson, R. C. Molthen, D. A. Hettrick, P. F. Pratt, M. D. Hardel, J. R. Kersten, D. C. Warltier, and P. S. Pagel. Alterations in wall shear stress predict sites of neointimal hyperplasia after stent implantation in rabbit iliac arteries. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol. 288:2465–2475, 2005.
Lewis, G. Materials, fluid dynamics, and solid mechanics aspects of coronary artery stents: a state-of-the-art review. J. Biomed. Mater. Res. B 86:569–590, 2008.
Malek, A. M., S. L. Alper, and S. Izumo. Hemodynamic shear stress and its role in atherosclerosis. J. Am. Med. Assoc. 282:2035, 1999.
Martin, D. M., E. A. Murphy, and F. J. Boyle. Computational fluid dynamics analysis of balloon-expandable coronary stents: influence of stent and vessel deformation. Med. Eng. Phys. 36:1047–1056, 2014.
Mattace-Raso, F. U., T. J. van der Cammen, A. Hofman, N. M. van Popele, M. L. Bos, M. A. Schalekamp, R. Asmar, R. S. Reneman, A. P. Hoeks, and M. M. Breteler. Arterial stiffness and risk of coronary heart disease and stroke the rotterdam study. Circulation 113:657–663, 2006.
Medrano-Gracia, P., J. Ormiston, M. Webster, S. Beier, C. Ellis, C. Wang, A. Young, and B. Cowan. Construction of a coronary atlas from CT angiography. In: Medical Image Computing and Computer Assisted Intervention, Boston, USA, 2014.
Mejia, J., R. Mongrain, and O. F. Bertrand. Accurate prediction of wall shear stress in a stented artery: newtonian versus non-Newtonian models. J. Biomech. Eng. 133:074501, 2011.
Morlacchi, S., and F. Migliavacca. Modeling stented coronary arteries: where we are, where to go. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 41:1428–1444, 2013.
Murphy, J. B., and F. J. Boyle. A full-range, multi-variable, CFD-based methodology to identify abnormal near-wall hemodynamics in a stented coronary artery. Biorheology 47:117–132, 2010.
Nichols, W. W., M. F. O’Rourke, and C. Vlachopoulos. McDonald’s Blood Flow in Arteries: Theoretical, Experimental and Clinical Principles. New York: Hodder Arnold, 2011.
Ormiston, J. A., B. Webber, B. Ubod, J. White, and M. Webster. Coronary stent durability and fracture: an independent bench comparison of six contemporary designs using a repetitive bend test. EuroIntervention 10:1449–1455, 2014.
Ozaki, Y., M. Okumura, T. F. Ismail, H. Naruse, K. Hattori, S. Kan, M. Ishikawa, T. Kawai, Y. Takagi, J. Ishii, F. Prati, and P. W. Serruys. The fate of incomplete stent apposition with drug-eluting stents: an optical coherence tomography-based natural history study. Eur. Heart J. 31:1470–1476, 2010.
Pant, S., N. W. Bressloff, A. I. J. Forrester, and N. Curzen. The influence of strut-connectors in stented vessels: a comparison of pulsatile flow through five coronary stents. Ann. Biomed. Eng. 38:1893–1907, 2010.
Poon, E. K., P. Barlis, S. Moore, W. H. Pan, Y. Liu, Y. Ye, Y. Xue, S. J. Zhu, and A. S. Ooi. Numerical investigations of the haemodynamic changes associated with stent malapposition in an idealised coronary artery. J. Biomech. 47:2843–2851, 2014.
Samady, H., P. Eshtehardi, M. C. McDaniel, J. Suo, S. S. Dhawan, C. Maynard, L. H. Timmins, A. A. Quyyumi, and D. P. Giddens. Coronary artery wall shear stress is associated with progression and transformation of atherosclerotic plaque and arterial remodeling in patients with coronary artery disease. Circulation 124:779–788, 2011.
Stone, P. H., A. U. Coskun, S. Kinlay, M. E. Clark, M. Sonka, A. Wahle, O. J. Ilegbusi, Y. Yeghiazarians, J. J. Popma, and J. Orav. Effect of endothelial shear stress on the progression of coronary artery disease, vascular remodeling, and in-stent restenosis in humans. Circulation 108:438–444, 2003.
Stone, P. H., S. Saito, S. Takahashi, Y. Makita, S. Nakamura, T. Kawasaki, A. Takahashi, T. Katsuki, A. Namiki, A. Hirohata, T. Matsumura, S. Yamazaki, H. Yokoi, S. Tanaka, S. Otsuji, F. Yoshimachi, J. Honye, D. Harwood, M. Reitman, A. U. Coskun, M. I. Papafaklis, and C. L. Feldman. Prediction of progression of coronary artery disease and clinical outcomes using vascular profiling of endothelial shear stress and arterial plaque characteristics: the PREDICTION Study. Circulation 126:172–181, 2012.
Wentzel, J. J., R. Krams, J. C. H. Schuurbiers, J. A. Oomen, J. Kloet, W. J. Van Der Giessen, P. W. Serruys, and C. J. Slager. Relationship between neointimal thickness and shear stress after wallstent implantation in human coronary arteries. Circulation 103:1740–1745, 2001.
WHO. Global Status Report on Noncommunicable Diseases 2010. Geneva: World Health Organisation, 2011.
Zoler, M. Undersized stents boost thrombosis risk 10-fold. Interv. Cardiol. Surg. 2008.