Journal of Ornithology

, Volume 153, Supplement 1, pp 23–48 | Cite as

Through birds’ eyes: insights into avian sensory ecology

Review

Abstract

Sensory ecology investigates the information that underlies an animal’s interactions with its environment. A sensory ecology approach provides a framework in which to investigate a wide range of topics in ornithology. This review provides a range of examples of this approach. Discussed are some of the more general principles which apply with respect to the ways in which information from different sensory systems may complement each other, or information is traded-off within a sensory modality in the achievement of particular tasks. The emphasis is upon the task of foraging, but other behaviours, such as locomotion and predator detection, are also addressed. Examples discussed consider: (1) the perceptual challenges of nocturnal activity and how they are differently solved by information from different sensory system in owls, kiwi, oilbirds and penguins; (2) the use of tactile information in foraging and how this interacts with visual information in probing birds, and in skimmers; and (3) the visual information used to guide stealth foraging in herons, and how vision is influenced by the filter feeding techniques of ducks and flamingos. In addition, two case studies are discussed. These explore: (a) the restrictions on the information available to guide foraging in turbid waters by cormorants, and (b) the application of a sensory ecology approach to understanding why birds collide with artefacts, such as power lines and wind turbines, which intrude into the open airspace. Among the general conclusions discussed are: (1) the idea that all sensory systems are selective within their own modality and that the range of information that is available to a particular species have been tuned to particular perceptual challenges through natural selection; it is also argued that this tuning can take place at the individual species level such that there may be key differences in sensory information even among birds in the same genus; (2) sensory systems detect only a small part of the total information that is available in the environment; no species has available to it all the information that is potentially available in its environment; in essence, all species share the same planet but live in different worlds that are dictated by the information that their sensory systems extract from the environment; (3) there may be complex and subtle trade-offs between different types of sensory information; and (4) the overall conclusion is that the world through birds’ eyes is quite different from the world as seen through human eyes but there are many different “bird eye views”.

Keywords

Sensory ecology Birds Vision Audition Olfaction Mechanoreception Foraging Visual fields Binocular vision 

References

  1. Archer SN, Djamgoz MBA, Loew E, Partridge JC, Vallerga S (1999) Adaptive mechanisms in the ecology of vision. Kluwer, DordrechtGoogle Scholar
  2. Avery ML, Springer PF, Dailey NS (1980) Avian mortality at man-made structures: an annotated bibliography. US Fish and Wildlife Service, Biological Services Program, National Power Plant TeamGoogle Scholar
  3. Bang BG, Wenzel BM (1985) Nasal cavity and olfactory system. In: King AS, McLelland J (eds) Form and function in birds. Academic, London, pp 195–225Google Scholar
  4. Bevanger K (1998) Biological and conservation aspects of bird mortality caused by electricity power lines: a review. Biol Conserv 86:67–76CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Biewener AA (2003) Animal locomotion. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  6. Bowmaker JK, Heath LA, Wilkie SE, Hunt DM (1997) Visual pigments and oil droplets from six classes of photoreceptors in the retinas of birds. Vision Res 37:2183–2194PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brooke MD, Hanley S, Laughlin SB (1999) The scaling of eye size with body mass in birds. Proc R Soc Lond B 266:405–412CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Burkhardt D (1982) Birds, berries and uv–a note on some consequences of uv vision in birds. Naturwissenschaften 69:153–157PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Busnel RG, Fish JF (1980) Animal sonar systems. Plenum, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  10. Carboneras C (1992) Family Anatidae (Ducks, Geese and Swans). In: del Hoyo J, Elliot A, Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world. Ostrich to Ducks, vol 1. Lynx, Barcelona, pp 536–628Google Scholar
  11. Carss DN, Bregnballe T, Keller TM, Van Eerden MR (2003) Reducing the conflict between cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo and fisheries on a pan-European scale: REDCAFE opens for business. Vogelwelt 124(Suppl 1):299–307Google Scholar
  12. Clarke DD, Forsyth RS, Wright RL (1995) The analysis of pre-accident sequences. Transport Research Laboratory, CrowthorneGoogle Scholar
  13. Cramp S, Simmons KEL (1983) The birds of the Western Palearctic, vol 3. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  14. Cronin TW (2008) Visual ecology. In: Basbaum AI, Kaneko A, Shepherd GM, Westheimer G (eds) The senses: a comprehensive reference, vision I, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 211–245CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Cunningham S (2010) Remote touch prey-detection by Madagascar crested ibises Lophotibis cristat urschi. J Avian Biol 41:350–353CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Cunningham S, Castro I, Alley M (2007) A new prey-detection mechanism for kiwi (Apteryx spp.) suggests convergent evolution between paleognathous and neognathous birds. J Anat 211:493–502PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cunningham SJ, Castro I, Potter MA (2009) The relative importance of olfaction and remote touch in prey detection by North Island brown kiwis. Anim Behav 78:899–905CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cunningham SJ, Alley MR, Castro I, Potter MA, Pyne MJ (2010) Bill morphology of ibises suggests a remote-tactile sensory system for prey detection. Auk 127:308–316CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cuthill IC, Partridge JC, Bennett ATD, Church SC, Hart NS, Hunt S (2000) Ultraviolet vision in birds. Adv Study Behav 29:159–214CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (1992) Handbook of the birds of the world. Ostrich to ducks, vol 1. Lynx, BarcelonaGoogle Scholar
  21. Demery ZP, Chappell J, Martin GR (2011) Vision, touch and object manipulation in Senegal parrots Poicephalus senegalus. Proc R Soc Lond B. doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0374
  22. Drewitt AL, Langston RHW (2008) Collision effects of wind-power generators and other obstacles on birds. Ann NY Acad Sci 1134:233–266PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Dusenbery D (1992) Sensory ecology: how organisms acquire and respond to information. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  24. Emmerton J, Delius J (1980) Wavelength discrimination in the “visible” and ultraviolet spectrum by pigeons. J Comp Physiol A 141:47–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Endler J, Westcott DA, Madden JR, Robson T (2005) Animal visual systems and the evolution of color patterns: sensory processing illuminates signal evolution. Evolution 59:1795–1818PubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gaffney MF, Hodos W (2003) The visual acuity and refractive state of the American kestrel (Falco sparverius). Vision Res 43:2053–2059PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Garamszegi LA, Moller AP, Erritzoe J (2002) Coevolving avian eye size and brain size in relation to prey capture and nocturnality. Proc R Soc Lond B 269:961–967CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Ghim MM, Hodos W (2006) Spatial contrast sensitivity of birds. J Comp Physiol A 192:523–534CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Gibson JJ (1986) The ecological approach to visual perception. Erlbaum, HoveGoogle Scholar
  30. Goldsmith TH (1980) Hummingbirds see near ultraviolet light. Science 207:786–788PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Gottschaldt KM (1985) Structure and function of avian somatosensory receptors. In: King AS, McLelland J (eds) Form and function in birds, vol 3. Academic, London, pp 375–461Google Scholar
  32. Goujon DE (1896) Sur un appareil de corpuscules tactiles situe dans le bec des perroquets. J Anat Physiol Norm Pathol Homme 6:449–455Google Scholar
  33. Grémillet D, Kuntz G, Delbart F, Mellet M, Kato A (2004) Linking the foraging performance of a marine predator to local prey abundance. Funct Ecol 18:793–801CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Griffin DR, Thompson D (1982) Echolocation in cave swiftlets. Behavl Ecol Sociobiol 10:119–123CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Guillemain M, Martin GR, Fritz H (2002) Feeding methods, visual fields and vigilance in dabbling ducks (Anatidae). Funct Ecol 16:522–529CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hancock J, Kushlan J (1984) The herons handbook. Croom Helm, LondonGoogle Scholar
  37. Hills BL (1980) Vision, visibility and perception in driving. Perception 9:183–216PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Hirsch J (1982) Falcon visual sensitivity to grating contrast. Nature 300:57–58CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Hodos W (1993) The visual capabilities of birds. In: Ziegler HP, Bischof HJ (eds) Avian vision, brain and behaviour. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 63–76Google Scholar
  40. Holland RA, Wikelski M, Kummeth F, Bosque C (2009) The secret life of oilbirds: new insights into the movement ecology of a unique avian frugivore. PLoS ONE 4:e8264. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0008264 PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Hughes A (1977) The topography of vision in mammals of contrasting life style: comparative optics and retinal organization. In: Crescitelli F (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VII/5. Springer, Berlin, pp 613–756Google Scholar
  42. Hunt DM, Carvalho LS, Cowing JA, Davies WL (2009) Evolution and spectral tuning of visual pigments in birds and mammals. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 364:2941–2955CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Jeffery WR (2005) Adaptive evolution of eye degeneration in the Mexican blind cavefish. J Hered 96:185–196PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Jerlov NG (1976) Marine optics. Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
  45. Johnsgard PA (1993) Cormorants, darters and pelicans of the world. Smithsonian Institution Press, WashingtonGoogle Scholar
  46. Julesz B (1978) Global stereopsis: cooperative phenomena in stereoscoic depth perception. In: Held R, Leibowitz HW, Teuber HL (eds) Handbook of sensory physiology: perception, vol 8. Springer, Berling, pp 215–256Google Scholar
  47. Katzir G, Intrator N (1987) Striking of underwater prey by reef herons, Egretta gularis schistacea. J Comp Physiol A 160:517–523CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Katzir G, Martin GR (1994) Visual fields in herons (Ardeidae)–panoramic vision beneath the bill. Naturwissenschaften 81:182–184Google Scholar
  49. Kear J, Duplaix-Hall N (1975) Flamingos. Poyser, BerkhampsteadGoogle Scholar
  50. Klump G, Windt W, Curio E (1986) The great tit’s (Parus major) auditory resolution in azimuth. J Comp Physiol A 158:383–390CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Knudsen EI (1980) Sound localisation in birds. In: Popper AN, Fay RR (eds) Comparative studies of hearing in vertebrates. Springer, Berlin, pp 289–322CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Konishi M, Knudsen EI (1979) The oilbird: hearing and echolocation. Science 204:425–427PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Kooyman GL, Cherel YC, Le Maho Y, Croxall JP, Thorson PH, Ridoux V, Kooyman CA (1992) Diving behavior and energetics during foraging cycles in king penguins. Ecol Monogr 62:143–163CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Land MF (1999) The roles of head movements in the search and capture strategy of a tern (Aves, Laridae). J Comp Physiol A 184:265–272CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Land MF, Nilsson D-E (2002) Animal eyes. Oxford University Press, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  56. Laughlin SB (2001) The metabolic cost of information- a fundamental factor in visual ecology. In: Barth FG, Schmid A (eds) Ecology of sensing. Springer, Berlin, pp 170–185Google Scholar
  57. Lee DN (1980) The optic flow field: the foundation of vision. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B 290:169–179CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Lee DN, Lishman R (1977) Visual control of locomotion. Scand J Psychol 18:224–230PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Lee DN, Young DS (1985) Visual timing of interceptive action. In: Ingle DJ, Jeannerod M, Lee DN (eds) Brain mechanisms and spatial vision. Nijhoff, Dordrecht, pp 1–30CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Leys R, Cooper SJB, Strecker U, Wilkens H (2005) Regressive evolution of eye pigment gene in independently evolved eyeless subterranean diving beetles. Biol Lett 1:496–499PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Lilliendahl K, Solmundsson J (2006) Feeding ecology of sympatric European shags Phalacrocorax aristotelis and great cormorants P. Carbo in Iceland. Marine Biol 149:979–990CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Locket NA (1977) Adaptations to the deep-sea environment. In: Crescitelli F (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology. Springer, Berlin, pp 67–192Google Scholar
  63. Lythgoe JN (1979) The ecology of vision. Clarendon, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  64. Lythgoe JN, Partridge JC (1989) Visual pigments and the acquisition of visual information. J Exp Biol 146:1–20PubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Manville AM (2005) Bird strikes and electrocutions at power lines, communication towers, and wind turbines: state of the art and state of the science–next steps toward mitigation. USDA Forest Service General Technical Report PSW-GTR-191Google Scholar
  66. Marchant S, Higgins PJ (1990) Handbook of Australian, New Zealand and antarctic birds. Part A, vol 1. Oxford University Press, MelbourneGoogle Scholar
  67. Martin GR (1977) Absolute visual threshold and scotopic spectral sensitivity in the tawny owl Strix aluco. Nature 268:636–638PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. Martin GR (1984) The visual fields of the tawny owl, Strix aluco L. Vision Res 24:1739–1751PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Martin GR (1985) Eye. In: King AS, McLelland J (eds) Form and function in birds, vol 3. Academic, London, pp 311–373Google Scholar
  70. Martin GR (1986a) Sensory capacities and the nocturnal habit of owls (Strigiformes). Ibis 128:266–277CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Martin GR (1986b) The eye of a passeriform bird, the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris): eye movement amplitude, visual fields and schematic optics. J Comp Physiol A 159:545–557CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Martin GR (1986c) Total panoramic vision in the mallard duck, Anas platyrhynchos. Vision Res 26:1303–1306PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Martin GR (1990) Birds by night. T & A D Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  74. Martin GR (1993) Producing the image. In: Zeigler HP, Bischof H-J (eds) Vision, brain, and behaviour in birds. MIT Press, Cambridge, pp 5–23Google Scholar
  75. Martin GR (1994) Visual fields in woodcocks Scolopax rusticola (Scolopacidae; Charadriiformes). J Comp Physiol A 174:787–793CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Martin GR (1999) Eye structure and foraging in king penguins Aptenodytes patagonicus. Ibis 141:444–450CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  77. Martin GR (2007) Visual fields and their functions in birds. J Ornithol 148(Suppl 2):547–562CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Martin GR (2009) What is binocular vision for? A birds’ eye view. J Vis 9:1–19PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Martin GR (2011) Understanding bird collisions with man-made objects: a sensory ecology approach. Ibis 153:239–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Martin GR, Brooke MDL (1991) The eye of a procellariiform seabird, the Manx shearwater, Puffinus puffinus: visual fields and optical structure. Brain Behav Evol 37:65–78PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Martin GR, Katzir G (1994) Visual fields and eye movements in herons (Ardeidae). Brain Behav Evol 44:74–85PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Martin GR, Katzir G (1999) Visual field in short-toed eagles Circaetus gallicus and the function of binocularity in birds. Brain Behav Evol 53:55–66PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Martin GR, Osorio D (2008) Vision in birds. In: Basbaum AI, Kaneko A, Shepherd GM, Westheimer G (eds) The senses: a comprehensive reference, vision I, vol 1. Elsevier, Amsterdam, pp 25–52CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Martin GR, Piersma T (2009) Vision and touch in relation to foraging and predator detection: insightful contrasts between a plover and a sandpiper. Proc R Soc Lond B 276:437–445CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Martin GR, Portugal SJ (2011) Differences in foraging ecology determine variation in visual field in ibises and spoonbills (Threskiornithidae). Ibis. doi:10.1111/j.1474-919X-2011.01151.x
  86. Martin GR, Shaw JM (2010) Bird collisions with power lines: failing to see the way ahead? Biol Conserv 143:2695–2702CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Martin GR, Rojas LM, Ramirez Y, McNeil R (2004) The eyes of oilbirds (Steatornis caripensis): pushing at the limits of sensitivity. Naturwissenschaften 91:26–29PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Martin GR, Jarrett N, Tovey P, White CR (2005) Visual fields in flamingos: chick-feeding versus filter-feeding. Naturwissenschaften 92:351–354PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Martin GR, Jarrett N, Williams M (2007a) Visual fields in blue ducks and pink-eared ducks: visual and tactile foraging. Ibis 149:112–120CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Martin GR, McNeil R, Rojas LM (2007b) Vision and the foraging technique of skimmers (Rynchopidae). Ibis 149:750–759CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Martin GR, Wilson KJ, Wild MJ, Parsons S, Kubke MF, Corfield J (2007c) Kiwi forego vision in the guidance of their nocturnal activities. PLoSOne 2(2):e198. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000198
  92. Martin GR, White CR, Butler PJ (2008) Vision and the foraging technique of great cormorants Phalacrocorax carbo: pursuit or flush-foraging? Ibis 150:39–48CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Meyer DB (1977) The avian eye and its adaptations. In: Crescitelli F (ed) Handbook of sensory physiology, vol VII/5. Springer, Berlin, pp 549–611Google Scholar
  94. Montgomerie R, Weatherhead PJ (1997) How do robins find worms? Anim Behav 54:143–151PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Norberg RA (1978) Skull asymmetry, ear structure and function and auditory localization in Tengmalm’s owl, Aegolius funereus. Philos Trans R Soc London B-Biol Sci 282B:325–410CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  96. Norberg UM (1990) Vertebrate flight: mechanics, physiology, morphology, ecology and evolution. Zoophysiology series, vol. 27. Springer, BerlinGoogle Scholar
  97. Olsson O, North AW (1997) Diet of the king penguin Aptenodytes patagonicus during three summers at South Georgia. Ibis 139:504–512CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Orta J (1992) Family Phalacrocoracidae (Cormorants). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world. Ostrich to ducks, vol 1. Lynx, Barcelona, pp 326–353Google Scholar
  99. Payne RS (1971) Acoustic location of prey by barn owls. J Exp Biol 54:535–573PubMedGoogle Scholar
  100. Piersma T, van Gils J, Wiersma P (1996) Family Scolopacidae (sandpipers, snipes and phalaropes). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world. Hoatzin to Auks, vol 3. Lynx, Barcelona, pp 444–533Google Scholar
  101. Piersma T, van Aelst R, Kurk K, Berkhoudt H, Maas LRM (1998) A new pressure sensory mechanisms for prey detection in birds: the use of principles of seabed dynamics? Proc R Soc Lond B 265:1377–1383CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  102. Pütz K, Bost CA (1994) Feeding behaviour of free-ranging king penguins (Aptenodytes patagonicus). Ecology 75:489–497CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Pye JD (1985) Echolocation. In: Campbell B, Lack E (eds) A dictionary of birds. Poyser, Calton, pp 165–166Google Scholar
  104. Reymond L (1985) Spatial visual acuity of the eagle Aquila audax: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation. Vision Res 25:1477–1491PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. Reymond L (1987) Spatial visual acuity of the falcon, Falco berigora: a behavioural, optical and anatomical investigation. Vision Res 27:1859–1974PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  106. Rochon-Duvigneaud A (1943) Eyes and vision of vertebrates, Masson, ParisGoogle Scholar
  107. Rogers LJ (2008) Development and function of lateralization in the avian brain. Brain Res Bull 76:235–244PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. Rojas LM, Ramírez Y, McNeil R, Mitchell M, Marín G (2004) Retinal morphology and electrophysiology of two caprimulgiformes birds: the cave-living and nocturnal oilbird (Steatornis caripensis), and the crepuscularly and nocturnally foraging common pauraque (Nyctidromus albicollis). Brain Behav Evol 64:19–33PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. Schaefer HM, Schaefer V, Vorobyev M (2007) Are fruit colors adapted to consumer vision and birds equally efficient in detecting colorful signals? Am Nat 169:S159–S169PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Sivak JG (1978) A survey of vertebrate strategies for vision in air and water. In: Ali MA (ed) Sensory ecology: review and perspectives. Plenum, New York, pp 503–520Google Scholar
  111. Snow DW (1961) The natural history of the oilbird, Steatornis caripensis, in Trinidad. 1. General behaviour and breeding habits. Zoologica 46:27–48Google Scholar
  112. Snyder AW, Laughlin SB, Stavenga DG (1977) Information capacity of eyes. Vision Res 17:1163–1175PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Strod T, Arad Z, Izhaki I, Katzir G (2004) Cormorants keep their power: visual resolution in a pursuit-diving bird under amphibious and turbid conditions. Curr Biol 14:R376–R377PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Tinbergen N (1953) The herring gull's world. Collins, LondonGoogle Scholar
  115. Tucker VA (2000) The deep fovea, sideways vision and spiral flight paths in raptors. J Exp Biol 203:3745–3754PubMedGoogle Scholar
  116. Tucker VA, Tucker AE, Akers K, Enderson JH (2000) Curved flight paths and sideways vision in peregrine falcons (Falco peregrinus). J Exp Biol 203:3755–3763PubMedGoogle Scholar
  117. Van den Hout PJ (2010) Struggle for safety: adaptive responses of wintering waders to their avian predators. PhD thesis. University of Groningen, GroningenGoogle Scholar
  118. Van den Hout PJ, Spaans B, Piersma T (2008) Differential mortality of wintering shorebirds on the Banc d’Arguin, Mautitania, due to predation by large falcons. Ibis 150(Suppl. 1):219–230CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. Viitala J, Korpimaki E, Palokangas P, Koivula M (1995) Attraction of kestrels to vole scent marks visible in ultraviolet light. Nature 373:425–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. Voisin C (1991) The herons of Europe. Poyser, LondonGoogle Scholar
  121. Vorobyev M, Marshall J, Osorio D, Hempel de Ibarra N (2001) Colourful objects through animal eyes. Color Res Appl 26:S214–S217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. Voss J, Bischoff HJ (2009) Eye movements of laterally eyed birds are not independent. J Exp Biol 212:1568–1575PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  123. Walls GL (1942) The vertebrate eye and its adaptive radiation. Cranbrook Institute of Science, MichiganCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. Wenzel B (1968) Olfactory prowess of Kiwi. Nature 220:1133–1134PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. White CR, Day N, Butler PJ, Martin GR (2007) Vision and foraging in cormorants: more like herons than hawks? PLoSOne i2(7):e639. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0000639
  126. Wilson K-J (2004) Flight of the Huia: ecology and conservation of New Zealand’s frogs, reptiles, birds and mammals. Canterbury University Press, ChristchurchGoogle Scholar
  127. Wiltschko R, Wiltschko W (1999) The orientation system of birds-1. Compass mechanisms. J Ornithol 140:1–40CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. Wiltschko R, Wiltschko W (2006) Magnetoreception. BioEssays 28:157–168PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wood CA (1917) The fundus occuli of birds especially as viewed by the ophthalmoscope. Lakeside, ChicagoGoogle Scholar
  130. Wright AA (1972) The influence of ultraviolet radiation on the pigeon’s color discrimination. J Exp Anal Behav 17:325–337PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. Wu L-Q, Dickman JD (2011) Magnetoreception in an avian brain in part mediated by inner ear lagena. Curr Biol 21:1–6PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. Zusi RL (1962) Structural adaptations of the head and neck in the black skimmer, Rynchops nigra. Publ Nuttall Orn Cl 3:1–101Google Scholar
  133. Zusi RL (1996) Family Rynchopidae (Skimmers). In: del Hoyo J, Elliott A, Sargatal J (eds) Handbook of the birds of the world. Hoatzin to Auks, vol 3. Lynx, Barcelona, pp 668–677Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Dt. Ornithologen-Gesellschaft e.V. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of BiosciencesUniversity of BirminghamEdgbaston, BirminghamUK

Personalised recommendations