Pediatric Nephrology

, Volume 33, Issue 1, pp 159–165 | Cite as

Trace element and vitamin concentrations in paediatric dialysis patients

  • Triona Joyce
  • Frances Court Brown
  • Dean Wallace
  • Christopher J. D. Reid
  • Manish D. Sinha
Original Article



There are few recent data regarding blood micronutrient concentrations and supplementation in children on maintenance dialysis. We investigated micronutrient concentrations following dialysis commencement.


Retrospective review, including all children on maintenance dialysis (peritoneal dialysis, PD; intermittent haemodialysis, IHD), for nutritional blood concentrations measured over the first 12 months. Patients received pyridoxine and Dialyvit® daily with planned 3-monthly micronutrient concentration monitoring including selenium, manganese, copper, zinc, folate and vitamins A, D, B12 and E.


We reviewed 47 children (24 girls) including 19 PD and 28 IHD, median age (IQR) 11.4 (2.8,14.4) years. 33 were white, 5 Asian, 5 black and 4 of other ethnic origins. Vitamin A, B12 and E concentrations were within range in 6%, 20% and 13% respectively, with all others above normal range. Serum folate and vitamin D concentrations were within the desired range of 55%, with the rest above or below target. For trace elements, 37%, 60%, 65% and 89% achieved normal ranges for zinc, manganese, copper and selenium respectively. Deficiencies were seen for zinc (43%), copper (28%), folate (6%) and selenium (4%), whereas 7%, 7%, 20% and 40% had copper, selenium, zinc and manganese levels above normal ranges. Despite standard pyridoxine supplementation, only 6 children were monitored during the study period.


Concentrations of several trace elements and vitamins were outside reference ranges. Response to systematic monitoring and targeted supplementation should be evaluated in future studies. Paediatric dialysis centres should consider undertaking routine nutritional bloods monitoring, particularly for vitamin D, zinc and copper.


Dialysis Minerals Trace elements Blood monitoring 



The author MDS acknowledges financial support from the Department of Health via the National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) comprehensive Biomedical Research Centre award to Guy’s & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation Trust in partnership with King’s College London and King’s College Hospital NHS Foundation Trust.

Compliance with ethics standards

The authors confirmed that as this was a retrospective analysis evaluating results of clinical investigations no consent from patients was indicated.

Conflicts of interest



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Copyright information

© IPNA 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Triona Joyce
    • 1
  • Frances Court Brown
    • 1
  • Dean Wallace
    • 2
  • Christopher J. D. Reid
    • 2
  • Manish D. Sinha
    • 2
  1. 1.Department of Nutrition and DieteticsEvelina London Children’s Hospital, Guys & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric Nephrology3rd Floor Beckett House, Evelina London Children’s Hospital, Guys & St Thomas’ NHS Foundation TrustLondonUK

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