The widely used diethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP) is a known endocrine disruptor that causes persistent alterations in the structure and function of female reproductive system, including ovaries, uterus and oviducts. To explore the molecular mechanism of the effect of DEHP on the development of mammary glands, we investigated the cell cycle, growth, proliferation and gene expression of mammary gland cells of pregnant mice exposed to DEHP. It was demonstrated, for the first time, that the mammary gland cells of pregnant mice treated with DEHP for 0.5–3.5 days post-coitum had increased proliferation, growth rate and number of cells in the G2/S phase. The expression of cell proliferation-related genes was significantly altered after short time and low-dose DEHP treatment of mammary gland cells in vivo and in vitro. These findings showed adverse effects of DEHP on mammary gland cells in pregnant mice.
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This work was supported by National Nature Science Foundation of China (31201120) and Nature Science Foundation of Hubei Province (2011CDB230) to X. F. Zhang, and Nature Science Foundation of Heilongjiang Province (ZD201304) to L. Li.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare no competing interest.
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Intracellular ROS levels assayed using DHE and DCFH-DA fluorescent probes in mammary gland cells of pregnant mice exposed to DEHP. (A-B) Intracellular ROS was measured by flow cytometry (DHE and DCFH-DA). (C-D) Average intensity of DHE and DCFH-DA fluorescence in mammary gland cells of pregnant mice exposed to DEHP. (E) The mRNA levels of genes in mammary gland cells were analyzed by RT-qPCR. The results are presented as mean ± SD. Asterisk (* or **) indicates significant difference (P < 0.05 or P < 0.01). (DOCX 522 kb)
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Li, L., Liu, JC., Zhao, Y. et al. Impact of diethylhexyl phthalate on gene expression and development of mammary glands of pregnant mouse. Histochem Cell Biol 144, 389–402 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00418-015-1348-9
- Mammary gland
- Gene expression pattern