Chromosome painting and comparative physical mapping of the sex chromosomes in Populus tomentosa and Populus deltoides
- 850 Downloads
Dioecious species accounted for 6% of all plant species, including a number of crops and economically important species, such as poplar. However, sex determination and sex chromosome evolution have been studied only in few dioecious species. In poplar, the sex-determining locus was mapped to chromosome 19. Interestingly, this locus was mapped to either a peritelomeric or a centromeric region among different poplar species. We developed an oligonucleotide (oligo)-based chromosome painting probe based on the sequence of chromosome 19 from Populus trichocarpa. We performed chromosome painting in P. tomentosa and P. deltoides. Surprisingly, the distal end on the short arm of chromosome 19, which corresponds to the location of the sex-determining locus reported in several species, was not painted in both species. Thus, the DNA sequences associated with this region have not been anchored to the current chromosome 19 pseudomolecule, which was confirmed by painting of somatic metaphase chromosome 19 of P. trichocarpa. Interestingly, the unpainted distal ends of the two chromosome 19 did not pair at the pachytene stage in 22–24% of the meiotic cells in the two species, suggest that these regions from the sex chromosomes have structurally diverged from each other, resulting in the reduced pairing frequency. These results shed light on divergence of a pair of young sex chromosomes in poplar.
KeywordsChromosome painting Sex chromosome Chromosome pairing Oligo-FISH Poplar
The authors thank Dr. Qiang Cheng (Nanjing Forestry University, China) and Dr. Wenli Zhang (Nanjing Agriculture University, China) for their valuable discussion and advice for this research.
The research was supported by grant 31670603 from the National Natural Science Foundation of China, grant 16KJA220001 from the Jiangsu Provincial Key Basic Research Foundation for Universities, the Doctorate Fellowship Foundation of Nanjing Forestry University, and funds from the Priority Academic Program Development of Jiangsu Higher Education Institutions.
- Eckenwalder JE (1996) Systematics and evolution of Populus. In: Stettler RF, Bradshaw HD Jr, Heilman PE, Hinckley TM (eds) Biology of Populus and its implications for management and conservation. NRC Research Press, Ottawa, pp 7–32Google Scholar
- Erlanson EW, Hermann FJ (1927) The morphology and cytology of perfect flowers in Populus tremuloides Michx. Mich Acad Sci Arts Lett 8:97–110Google Scholar
- Fransz P, Armstrong S, Alonso-Blanco C, Fischer TC, Torres-Ruiz RA , Jones G (1998) Cytogenetics for the model system Arabidopsis thaliana. Plant J 13:867–876Google Scholar
- Gaudet M, Jorge V, Paolucci I, Beritognolo I, Mugnozza GS, Sabtti M (2008) Genetic linkage maps of Populus nigra L. including AFLPs, SSRs, SNPs, and sex trait. Tree Genet Genomes 4:25–36Google Scholar
- Geraldes A, Hefer CA, Capron A, Kolosova N, Martinez-Nunez F, Soolanayakanahally RY, Stanton B, Guy RD, Mansfield SD, Douglas CJ, Cronk QCB (2015) Recent Y chromosome divergence despite ancient origin of dioecy in poplars (Populus). Mol Ecol 24:3243–3256Google Scholar
- Tuskan GA, DiFazio S, Jansson S, Bohlmann J, Grigoriev I, Hellsten U, Putnam N, Ralph S, Rombauts S, Salamov A, Schein J, Sterck L, Aerts A, Bhalerao RR, Bhalerao RP, Blaudez D, Boerjan W, Brun A, Brunner A, Busov V, Campbell M, Carlson J, Chalot M, Chapman J, Chen GL, Cooper D, Coutinho PM, Couturier J, Covert S, Cronk Q, Cunningham R, Davis J, Degroeve S, Dejardin A, dePamphilis C, Detter J, Dirks B, Dubchak I, Duplessis S, Ehlting J, Ellis B, Gendler K, Goodstein D, Gribskov M, Grimwood J, Groover A, Gunter L, Hamberger B, Heinze B, Helariutta Y, Henrissat B, Holligan D, Holt R, Huang W, Islam-Faridi N, Jones S, Jones-Rhoades M, Jorgensen R, Joshi C, Kangasjarvi J, Karlsson J, Kelleher C, Kirkpatrick R, Kirst M, Kohler A, Kalluri U, Larimer F, Leebens-Mack J, Leple JC, Locascio P, Lou Y, Lucas S, Martin F, Montanini B, Napoli C, Nelson DR, Nelson C, Nieminen K, Nilsson O, Pereda V, Peter G, Philippe R, Pilate G, Poliakov A, Razumovskaya J, Richardson P, Rinaldi C, Ritland K, Rouze P, Ryaboy D, Schmutz J, Schrader J, Segerman B, Shin H, Siddiqui A, Sterky F, Terry A, Tsai CJ, Uberbacher E, Unneberg P, Vahala J, Wall K, Wessler S, Yang G, Yin T, Douglas C, Marra M, Sandberg G, van de Peer Y, Rokhsar D (2006) The genome of black cottonwood, Populus trichocarpa (Torr. & Gray). Science 313:1596–1604CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tuskan GA, DiFazio S, Faivre-Rampant P, Gaudet M, Harfouche A, Jorge V, Labbé JL, Ranjan P, Sabatti M, Slavov G, Street N, Tschaplinski TJ, Yin TM (2012) The obscure events contributing to the evolution of an incipient sex chromosome in Populus: a retrospective working hypothesis. Tree Genet Genomes 8:559–571CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Wang JP, Na JK, Yu QY, Gschwend AR, Han J, Zeng FC, Aryal R, VanBuren R, Murray JE, Zhang WL, Navajas-Perez R, Feltus FA, Lemke C, Tong EJ, Chen CX, Man Wai C, Singh R, Wang ML, Min XJ, Alam M, Charlesworth D, Moore PH, Jiang JM, Paterson AH, Ming R (2012) Sequencing papaya X and Yh chromosomes reveals molecular basis of incipient sex chromosome evolution. Proc Natl Acad Sci 109:13710–13715CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Yin TM, DiFazio SP, Gunter LE, Zhang XY, Sewell MM, Woolbright SA, Allan GJ, Kelleher CT, Douglas CJ, Wang MX, Tuskan GA (2008) Genome structure and emerging evidence of an incipient sex chromosome in Populus. Genome Res 18:422–430Google Scholar