Impacts of extratropical storm tracks on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait
Studies have indicated regime shifts in atmospheric circulation, and associated changes in extratropical storm tracks and Arctic storm activity, in particular on the North Atlantic side of the Arctic Ocean. To improve understanding of changes in Arctic sea ice mass balance, we examined the impacts of the changed storm tracks and cyclone activity on Arctic sea ice export through Fram Strait by using a high resolution global ocean–sea ice model, MITgcm–ECCO2. The model was forced by the Japanese 25-year Reanalysis (JRA-25) dataset. The results show that storm-induced strong northerly wind stress can cause simultaneous response of daily sea ice export and, in turn, exert cumulative effects on interannual variability and long-term changes of sea ice export. Further analysis indicates that storm impact on sea ice export is spatially dependent. The storms occurring southeast of Fram Strait exhibit the largest impacts. The weakened intensity of winter (in this study winter is defined as October–March and summer as April–September) storms in this region after 1994/95 could be responsible for the decrease of total winter sea ice export during the same time period.
KeywordsFram Strait Sea ice export Storm track Cyclones MITgcm–ECCO2
This study was supported by the National Key R&D Program of China (2016YFA0601804), the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant 2015CB953900), and the Research Innovation Program for College Graduates of Jiangsu Province (KYLX15_0857). ZW is supported by “the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities” (2017B20714; 2017B04814). JRA-25 reanalysis data were obtained freely from the NCAR’s research data archive (https://rda.ucar.edu/datasets/ds625.0/).
- Leppäranta M (2005) The drift of sea ice. Springer, Heidelberg, p 266Google Scholar
- McCabe G, Clark M, Serreze M (2001) Trends in Northern Hemisphere surface cyclone frequency and intensity. J Clim 14(12):2763–2768. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2001)014<2763:tinhsc>2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Menemenlis D, Campin J, Heimbach P et al (2008) ECCO2: high resolution global ocean and sea ice data synthesis. Mercat Ocean Q Newsl 31:13–21.Google Scholar
- Serreze M, Carse F, Barry R, Rogers J (1997) Icelandic low cyclone activity: climatological features, linkages with the NAO, and relationships with recent changes in the Northern Hemisphere Circulation. J Clim 10(3):453–464. (https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1997)010<0453:ilcacf>2.0.co;2)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Stroeve J, Serreze M, Barrett A, Kindig D (2011) Attribution of recent changes in autumn cyclone associated precipitation in the Arctic. Tellus A 63(4). https://doi.org/10.3402/tellusa.v63i4.15846
- Tsukernik MA (2007) Characteristics of the winter cyclone activity in the northern North Atlantic and its impact on the Arctic freshwater budget. Doctoral dissertation, University of Colorado at BoulderGoogle Scholar
- Zhang X, Walsh J, Zhang J et al. (2004) Climatology and interannual variability of Arctic cyclone activity: 1948–2002. J Clim 17(12):2300–2317. https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<2300:caivoa>2.0.co;2 CrossRefGoogle Scholar