World Journal of Urology

, Volume 36, Issue 4, pp 565–573 | Cite as

‘Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator’ mobile applications (Apps): a systematic review and scoring using the validated user version of the Mobile Application Rating Scale (uMARS)

  • Ahmed Adam
  • Julian C. Hellig
  • Marlon Perera
  • Damien Bolton
  • Nathan Lawrentschuk
Original Article



The use of mobile phone applications (Apps) has modernised the conventional practice of medicine. The diagnostic ability of the current Apps in prostate specific antigen monitoring, and its diagnostic ability within prostate cancer (PCa) risk calculators have not yet been appraised. We aimed to review, rate and assess the everyday functionality, and utility of all the currently available PCa risk calculator Apps.


A systematic search on iTunes, Google Play Store, Blackberry World and Windows Apps Store, was performed on 23/11/2017, using the search term ‘prostate cancer risk calculator’. After applying the exclusion criteria, each App was individually assessed and rated using pre-set criteria and grading was performed using the validated uMARS scale.


In total, 83 Apps were retrieved. After applying our exclusion criteria, only 9 Apps were relevant, with 2 duplicated, and the remaining 7 were suitable for critical review. Data sizes ranged from 414 kb to 10.1 Mb. The cost of the Apps ranged from South African rand (ZAR) 0.00 to ZAR 29.99. The overall mean category uMARS scores ranged from 2.8/5 to 4.5/5. Apps such as Rotterdam Prostate Cancer Risk Calculator, Coral—Prostate Cancer Nomogram Calculator and CPC Risk Calculator, performed the best.


The current PCa risk calculator mobile Apps available may be beneficial in counselling the concerned at risk patient. These Apps have potential to assist both the patient and the urologist alike. The PCa risk calculator App ‘predictability’ may be further enhanced by the incorporation of newly validated risk factors and predictors for PCa.


Prostate cancer Risk calculators Mobile applications (Apps) uMARS Grading Scoring 



The authors are grateful to Mrs. Anna Welman, Department of Surgery, Helen Joseph Hospital, University of Witwatersrand, Johannesburg, for her secretarial support in the drafting of this manuscript.

Author contributions

AA: study inception, project development, grading-tool selection, grading, outline and structure, manuscript writing, editing, collaboration, submission, correspondence JCH: data collation, grading, manuscript writing/editing, MP: manuscript writing/editing, DB: manuscript writing/editing, NL: manuscript writing/editing.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


A. Adam is not a recipient of a research scholarship.

Supplementary material

345_2017_2150_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (53 kb)
Supplementary file The uMARS appendix scoring sheet [7] (PDF 52 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of UrologyHelen Joseph HospitalJohannesburgSouth Africa
  2. 2.Department of Paediatric UrologyRahima Moosa Mother and Child (Coronation) HospitalJohannesburgSouth Africa
  3. 3.The Division of Urology, Department of Surgery, Faculty of Health Sciences, School of Clinical MedicineUniversity of the WitwatersrandJohannesburgSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of Surgery, Austin HealthUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  5. 5.Department of SurgeryUniversity of QueenslandBrisbaneAustralia
  6. 6.Olivia-Newton John Cancer CentreUniversity of MelbourneMelbourneAustralia
  7. 7.Department of Surgical OncologyPeter MacCallum Cancer CentreMelbourneAustralia
  8. 8.Division of Urology, Department of SurgeryWits Medical SchoolJohannesburgSouth Africa

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