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Thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration hollow fiber membrane fabrication and characterization by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy


Nano-TiO2 nanoparticles were incorporated into thin film nanocomposites (TFN) formed on hollow fiber support membranes composed of a blend of polysulfone and multi-walled carbon nanotubes. Three different TiO2 nanoparticles (0.01%, 0.05% and 0.2% w/v) in the thin film composite were investigated. Formation of the nanocomposite polyamide layer was confirmed by the results of FTIR and scanning electron microscopy. Double-layer capacitance values obtained from electrochemical impedance spectroscopy results showed that effective surface area of the membranes was enhance by the incorporation of nano-TiO2. Nanofiltration membrane performance was examined using solutions of MgSO4 and NaCl under cross-flow system with hollow fiber nanofiltration modules. Fouling of the membrane was evaluated with solutions of humic and tannic acids. The permeate flux of TFN 0.05 composite membranes was improved nearly 12 times with the incorporation of TiO2 with rejections of MgSO4 and NaCl salts of 22% and 5%, respectively. The rejections of the NF membranes for HA and TA were 84% and 74%, respectively, with improved antifouling properties compared to the thin film composite membrane without TiO2, the latter being attributed to increased hydrophilicity of membrane surface.

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J :

Permeate flux (L/m2 h)

A m :

Membrane effective area (m2)

\(\Delta W_{\text{feed}}\) :

Weight change of the feed solution (g)

Δt :

Permeation time (h)

R :

Observed rejection ratio (%)

C f :

Salt concentration in the feed (g/L)

C p :

Salt concentration in the permeate (g/L)

A :

Effective membrane area (m2)

TFN 0:

Thin film nanocomposite

TFN 0.01:

Thin film nanocomposite with incorporation of 0.01% TiO2

D eff :

Effective diffusion coefficient


Radial frequency


The diffusion length (μm)

L :

Effective length of the pores

R d :

Resistance (Ohm)

D e :

Diffusion coefficient of electrons in TFN

D i :

Diffusion coefficient of ions in TFN

ΔP :

The working pressure (Pa)

TFN 0.05:

Thin film nanocomposite with incorporation of 0.05% TiO2

TFN 0.2:

Thin film nanocomposite with incorporation of 0.2% TiO2


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The authors are grateful to The Scientific and Research Council of Turkey (TUBITAK) for the financial support under grant (Project No. 113Y359). GMUB would like to thank for funding provided by TUBITAK-BIDEB 2214-A International Research Fellowship Programme.

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Correspondence to Mark Wiesner or Ismail Koyuncu.

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Urper-Bayram, G.M., Sayinli, B., Bossa, N. et al. Thin film nanocomposite nanofiltration hollow fiber membrane fabrication and characterization by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Polym. Bull. 77, 3411–3427 (2020).

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  • Hollow fiber
  • Nanofiltration
  • EIS
  • TiO2