Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields in the environment: what are their effects on bacteria?
Millimeter waves (MMW) or electromagnetic fields of extremely high frequencies at low intensity is a new environmental factor, the level of which is increased as technology advance. It is of interest that bacteria and other cells might communicate with each other by electromagnetic field of sub-extremely high frequency range. These MMW affected Escherichia coli and many other bacteria, mainly depressing their growth and changing properties and activity. These effects were non-thermal and depended on different factors. The significant cellular targets for MMW effects could be water, cell plasma membrane, and genome. The model for the MMW interaction with bacteria is suggested; a role of the membrane-associated proton FOF1-ATPase, key enzyme of bioenergetic relevance, is proposed. The consequences of MMW interaction with bacteria are the changes in their sensitivity to different biologically active chemicals, including antibiotics. Novel data on MMW effects on bacteria and their sensitivity to different antibiotics are presented and discussed; the combined action of MMW and antibiotics resulted with more strong effects. These effects are of significance for understanding changed metabolic pathways and distinguish role of bacteria in environment; they might be leading to antibiotic resistance in bacteria. The effects might have applications in the development of technique, therapeutic practices, and food protection technology.
KeywordsBacteria Millimeter waves or extremely high frequency electromagnetic field Proton F0F1-ATPase Applied microbiology Environment and technology Antibiotics
The authors thank Dr. V. Kalantaryan (Department of Telecommunication and High Frequency Radiophysics, Yerevan State University, Armenia) for discussion and advice. The study was done within the framework of Basic Support of State Committee of Science, Ministry of Education and Science of Armenia (#10-3/9).
Compliance with ethical standards
This article does not contain any studies with human participants or animals performed by any of the authors.
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Adebayo EA, Adeeyo AO, Ayandele AA, Omomowo IO (2014) Effect of radiofrequency radiation from telecommunication base stations on microbial diversity and antibiotic resistance. J Appl Sci Environ Manag 18:669–674Google Scholar
- Ahmed I, Istivan T, Pirogova E (2015a) Irradiation of Escherichia coli by extremely-low frequency (ELF) pulsed electromagnetic fields (PEMF): evaluation of bacterial survival. J Electromagn Waves Appl 29:26–37Google Scholar
- Ahmed LT, Majeed AD, Shaima’a AS (2015b) The effect of mobile waves on the growth of pathogenic fungi. Int J Curr Microbiol Appl Sci 4:838–842Google Scholar
- Belyaev I (2005) Non-thermal biological effects of microwaves. Microwave Rev 11:13–29Google Scholar
- Bingi VN (2011) Principles of electromagnetic biophysics. PhysMathLit, MoscowGoogle Scholar
- Bulgakova VG, Grushina VA, Orlova TI, Petrykina ZM, Polin AN, Noks PP, Kononenko AA, Rubin AB (1996) The effect of millimeter-band radiation of non-thermal intensity on sensitivity of Staphylococcus to various antibiotics. Biophysics 41:1315–1319Google Scholar
- Burlakova EB, Konradov AA, Maltseva EL (2004) Effect of extremely weak chemical and physical stimuli on biological systems. Biophysics 49:522–534Google Scholar
- Chung C, Hung G, Lam C, Laurence M (2006) Secondary effects of streptomycin and kanamycin on macromolecular composition of Escherichia coli B23 cell. J Exp Microbiol Immunol 9:11–15Google Scholar
- Gabrielyan L, Sargsyan H, Trchounian A (2015) Effects of millimeter waves of low intensity on growth and photoproduction of hydrogen by Rhodobacter sphaeroides. In: VII Int congress “Low and Superlow Fields and radiations in Biology and Medicine”. Sci Proc, St-Petersburg (Russia), pp. 27–28Google Scholar
- Hwang G, Han Y, Choi SQ, Cho S, Kim H (2015) Bacterial inactivation by ultrasonic waves: role of ionic strength, humic acid, and temperature. Water Air Soil Pollut 226:1–9Google Scholar
- Isakhanyan V, Trchounian A (2005) Indirect and repeated electromagnetic irradiation with extremely high frequency of bacteria Escherichia coli. Biophysics 50:604–606Google Scholar
- McMurry L, Hendricks M, Levy S (1986) Effects of toluene permeabilization and cell deenergization on tetracycline resistance in Escherichia coli. J Bacteriol 29:681–686Google Scholar
- Mishra T, Kushwah P, Dholiya K, Kothari V (2013) Effect of low power microwave radiation on microorganisms and other life forms. Adv Microwave Wireless Technol 1:4–11Google Scholar
- Novoselova EG, Glushkova OV, Sinotova OA, Fesenko EE (2005) Stress response of the cell to exposure to ultraweak electromagnetic radiation. Dokl Russ Acad Sci 401:117–119Google Scholar
- Ohanyan V, Torgomyan H, Soghomonyan D, Hovnanyan K, Trchounian A (2015) Novel data on bacterial effects of low intensity electromagnetic field in extremely high frequencies: Effects of irradiated antibiotics on Enterococcus hirae and Escherichia coli growth and morphology, ion flux alyernations fur to combined treatment of Lactobacillus acidophilus with irradiation and antibiotics. In: In VII Int Congress “Low and Superlow Fields and radiations in Biology and Medicine”. Sci Proc, St-Petersburg (Russia), p. 213Google Scholar
- Ohanyan VA (2012) Combined effects of extremely high frequency electromagnetic field and antibiotics on Enterococcus hirae growth and survival. Rep Nat Acad Sci Armenia 112:87–94Google Scholar
- Pakhomov AG, Murphy MB (2000) Comprehensive review of the research on biological effects of pulsed radiofrequency radiation in Russia and the former Soviet Union. In: Lin JC (ed) Advances in electromagnetic fields in living system, 3. Kluwer Acad Plenum Publ, New York, pp. 265–290CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Potselueva MM, Pustovidko AV, Evtodienko I, Khramov RN, Chaĭlakhian LM (1998) Formation of reactive oxygen species in aqueous solutions after exposure to extremely-high frequency electromagnetic fields. Rep Acad Sci 359:415–418Google Scholar
- Presman AS (1970) Electromagnetic field and life. Plenum Press, NY & LondonGoogle Scholar
- Ratushnyak AA, Andreeva MG, Morozova OV, Morozov GA, Trushin MV (2008) Effect of extremely high frequency electromagnetic fields on the microbiological community in rhizosphere of plants. Int Agrophys 22:71–74Google Scholar
- Redlarski G, Lewczuk B, Zak A, Koncicki A, Krawszuk M, Piechocki J, Jakubiuk K, Tojza P, Jaworski J, Ambroziak D, Skarbek L, Gradolewski D (2015) The influence of electromagnetic pollution on living organisms: Historical trends and forecasting changes. Biomed Res Int 2015, ID 234098, 18 p.Google Scholar
- Silva ED (2001) High frequency and microwave engineering. Butterworth-Heinemann, OxfordGoogle Scholar
- Soghomonyan D, Kalantaryan V, Trchounian A (2014) Changes in the FOF1-ATPase activity of irradiated Lactobacillus acidophilus in the presence of ceftazidime at low pH. Biolog J Armenia 66(3):39–43Google Scholar
- Tadevosyan H, Trchounian A (2009) Effects of coherent extremely high frequency and low intensity electromagnetic radiation on the activity of membrane systems of Escherichia coli bacteria. Biofizika 54:1055–1059Google Scholar
- Tadevosyan H, Kalantaryan V, Trchounian A (2007) The effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency and low intensity on the growth rate of Escherichia coli and the role of medium pH. Biophysics 52:893–898Google Scholar
- Torgomyan H, Trchounian A (2011) Low-intensity electromagnetic irradiation of 70.6 and 73 GHz frequencies enhances the effects of disulfide bonds reducer on Escherichia coli growth and affects the bacterial surface oxidation–reduction state. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 414:265–269CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Torgomyan H, Ohanyan V, Blbulyan S, Kalantaryan V, Trchounian A (2012) Electromagnetic irradiation of Enterococcus hirae at low-intensity 51.8 and 53.0 GHz frequencies: changes in bacterial cell membrane properties and enhanced antibiotics effects. FEMS Microbiol Lett 329:131–137CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Trchounian A, Ogandzhanyan E, Sarkisyan E, Gonyan S, Oganesyan A, Oganesyan S (2001) Membranotropic effects of electromagnetic radiation of extremely high frequency in Escherichia coli. Biophysics 46:69–76Google Scholar
- Yadollahpour A, Jalilifar M, Rashidi S (2014) Antimicrobial effects of electromagnetic fields: A review of current techniques and mechanisms of action. J Pure Appl Microbiol 8:4031–4043.Google Scholar
- Zand N, Foroudi F, Mailova E, Voskanyan A (2010) Sterilization of flexible pouch by high frequency electromagnetic induction, using cooked chick and chick meal. Afr J Microbiol Res 4:2011–2021Google Scholar