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Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art

Abstract

The objective was to provide the current state of the art regarding the role of vitamin D in chronic diseases (osteoporosis, cancer, cardiovascular diseases, dementia, autism, type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus, male and female fertility). The document was drawn up by panelists that provided their contribution according to their own scientific expertise. Each scientific expert supplied a first draft manuscript on a specific aspect of the document’s topic that was subjected to voting by all experts as “yes” (agreement with the content and/or wording) or “no” (disagreement). The adopted rule was that statements supported by ≥75 % of votes would be immediately accepted, while those with <25 % would be rejected outright. Others would be subjected to further discussion and subsequent voting, where ≥67 % support or, in an eventual third round, a majority of ≥50 % would be needed. This document finds that the current evidence support a role for vitamin D in bone health but not in other health conditions. However, subjects with vitamin D deficiency have been found to be at high risk of developing chronic diseases. Therefore, although at the present time there is not sufficient evidence to recommend vitamin D supplementation as treatment of chronic diseases, the treatment of vitamin D deficiency should be desiderable in order to reduce the risk of developing chronic diseases.

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Muscogiuri, G., Altieri, B., Annweiler, C. et al. Vitamin D and chronic diseases: the current state of the art. Arch Toxicol 91, 97–107 (2017). https://doi.org/10.1007/s00204-016-1804-x

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Keywords

  • Vitamin D
  • Musculoskeletal disorders
  • Cancer
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Dementia
  • Autism
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Hypogonadism
  • Fertility
  • PCOS
  • Environment
  • Lifestyle
  • Endometriosis