Advertisement

Silicon

pp 1–10 | Cite as

Exogenous Silicon Modulates Growth, Physio-Chemicals and Antioxidants in Barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) Exposed to Different Temperature Regimes

  • Iqbal HussainEmail author
  • Abida Parveen
  • Rizwan Rasheed
  • Muhammad Arslan Ashraf
  • Muhammad Ibrahim
  • Saima Riaz
  • Zarbhakhat Afzaal
  • Muhammad Iqbal
Original Paper
  • 24 Downloads

Abstract

The exogenous application of silicon (Si) is reported to enhance tolerance of plants against various environmental stresses. Therefore, the present study was carried out to examine the influence of foliar applied Si (1.5 mM) on growth, physiochemical processes and antioxidant defense system of barley plants (cvs. Jow-83 and B-12026) under different regimes of temperature (20 °C (control), 25 °C, 30 °C, and 35 °C). High temperature (HT) regimes caused a significant (P < 0.001) decline in shoot (68% and 84%) and root (44% and 77%) dry masses, leaf area (66% and 81%), chlorophyll (Chl) a (11% and 70%), Chl b (69% and 71%), carotenoids (60% and 62%), anthocyanins (56%), total soluble proteins (62%) and phenolics (36% and 50%) contents in both cvs. Jow-83 and B-12026, respectively. A significant (P < 0.001) increase in superoxide dismutase (205% and 133%), peroxidase (128% and 88%) and catalase (127% and 87%) activities was recorded in stressed plants of both cultivars, respectively. Moreover, HT stress markedly (P < 0.001) increased hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) (54% and 75%) and malondialdehyde (MDA) (52% and 149%) levels in both cultivars that activated the oxidative stress. But, plants treated with Si showed better growth and had higher total soluble proteins (18% and 12%), anthocyanins (74% and 39%), flavonoids (31% and 27%) and phenolics (39% and 19%) as well as the activities of SOD (43% and 29%), POD (46% and 40%) and CAT (24% and 63%) enzymes. Application of Si reduced HT-mediated oxidative stress by decreasing the concentration of MDA (39% and 49%) and H2O2 (14% and 56%) and increased shoot (49% and 46%) and root (40% and 34%) dry masses, Chl a (10% and 86%), Chl b (82% and 81%), and carotenoids (53% and 33%) in both barley cultivars. Plants of cv. Jow-83 showed more tolerance to temperature regimes than that of cv. B-12026 as evident from higher plant dry masses. Thus, our findings exhibited that foliar-applied Si is an efficient strategy that can be used to enhance the tolerance of barley plants to HT stress.

Keywords

Antioxidant mechanism Chlorophyll pigments Growth attributes High temperature stress Lipid peroxidation Silicon 

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Notes

Acknowledgments

This work was partially supported by the grants from Punjab Higher Education Commission (PHEC), Islamabad, Pakistan.

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors state that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. 1.
    Mathur S, Agrawal D, Jajoo A (2014) Photosynthesis: response to high temperature stress. J Photochem Photobiol B: Biol 137:116–126CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Lamb RS (2012) Abiotic stress responses in plants: a focus on the SRO family. In: Advances in selected plant physiology aspects, G. Montanaro, Ed. INTECH-Open Access Publisher, Rijeka, 1-21Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Iqbal M, Hussain I, Liaqat H, Ashraf MA, Rasheed R, Rehman AU (2015) Exogenously applied selenium reduces oxidative stress and induces heat tolerance in spring wheat. Plant Physiol Biochem 94:95–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Crawford AJ, McLachlan DH, Hetherington AM, Franklin KA (2012) High temperature exposure increases plant cooling capacity. Curr Biol 22(10):R396–R397CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Todorov D, Karanov E, Smith AR, Hall MA (2003) Chlorophyllase activity and chlorophyll content in wild and mutant plants of Arabidopsis thaliana. Biol Plant 46:125–127CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Greer DH, Weedon MM (2012) Modelling photosynthetic responses to temperature of grapevine (Vitis vinifera cv. Semillon) leaves on vines grown in a hot climate. Plant Cell Environ 35:1050–1064CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Soundararajan P, Sivanesan I, Jana S, Jeong BR (2014) Influence of silicon supplementation on the growth and tolerance to high temperature in Salvia splendens. Hort Environ Biotech 55:271–279CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Hussain I, Ashraf MA, Rasheed R, Iqbal M, Ibrahim M, Ashraf S (2016) Heat shock increases oxidative stress to modulate growth and physico-chemical attributes in diverse maize cultivars. Int Agrophys 30(4):519–531CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Bita C, Gerats T (2013) Plant tolerance to high temperature in a changing environment: scientific fundamentals and production of heat stress-tolerant crops. Front Plant Sci 4:273CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wahid A, Gelani S, Ashraf M, Foolad MR (2007) Heat tolerance in plants: An overview. Environ Exp Bot 61:199–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Potters G, Pasternak TP, Guisez Y, Palme KJ, Jansen MAK (2007) Stress-induced morphogenic responses: growing out of trouble? Trends Plant Sci 12:98–105CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Hasanuzzaman M, Nahar K, Alam MM, Roychowdhury R, Fujita M (2013) Physiological, biochemical, and molecular mechanisms of heat stress tolerance in plants. Int J Mol Sci 14(5):9643–9684CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Qutab S, Iqbal M, Rasheed R, Ashraf MA, Hussain I, Akram NA (2017) Root zone selenium reduces cadmium toxicity by modulating tissue-specific growth and metabolism in maize (Zea mays L.). Arch Agron Soil Sci 63(13):1900–1911CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Sarwar N, Malhi SS, Zia MH, Naeem A, Bibi S, Farid G (2010) Role of mineral nutrition in minimizing cadmium accumulation by plants. J Sci Food Agric 90(6):925–937PubMedGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Sommer M, Kaczorek D, Kuzyakov Y, Breuer J (2006) Silicon pools and fluxes in soils and landscapes-a review. Journal of Plant Nutrition and Soil Science 169:310–329CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bakhat HF, Zia Z, Fahad S, Abbas S, Hammad HM, Shahzad AN, Abbas F, Alharby H, Shahid M (2017) Arsenic uptake, accumulation and toxicity in rice plants: possible remedies for its detoxification: a review. Environ Sci Pollut Res 24(10):9142–9158CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bakhat HF, Bibi N, Zia Z, Abbas S, Hammad HM, Fahad S, Ashraf MR, Shah GM, Rabbani F, Saeed S (2018) Silicon mitigates biotic stresses in crop plants: a review. Crop Protection 104:21–34CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ma JF (2004) Role of silicon in enhancing the resistance of plants to biotic and abiotic stresses. Soil Sci Plant Nutr 50:11–18CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Zhou MX (2009) Barley production and consumption. In Genetics and Improvement of Barley Malt Quality. Springer, Berlin, pp 1–17CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Cai K, Gao D, Luo S, Zeng R, Yang J, Zhu X (2008) Physiological and Cytological Mechanisms of Silicon-Induced Resistance in Rice against Blast Disease. Physiologia Plantarum 134:324–333CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Liang YC, Chen Q, Liu Q, Zhang WH, Ding RX (2003) Exogenous silicon (Si) increases antioxidant enzyme activity and reduces lipid peroxidation in roots of salt-stressed barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). Journal of Plant Physiology 160:1157–1164CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Habibi G (2016) Effect of foliar-applied silicon on photochemistry, antioxidant capacity and growth in maize plants subjected to chilling stress. Acta Agric Slov 107:33–43CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Kim YH, Khan AL, Waqas M, Jeong HJ, Kim DH, Shin JS et al (2014b) Regulation of jasmonic acid biosynthesis by silicon application during physical injury to Oryza sativa L. J Plant Res 127:525–532CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Al-aghabary K, Zhu Z, Shi Q (2005) Influence of silicon supply on chlorophyll content, chlorophyll fluorescence, and antioxidative enzyme activities in tomato plants under salt stress. J Plant Nut 27:2101–2115CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Shi Y, Zhang Y, Han W, Feng R, Hu Y, Guo J et al (2016) Silicon enhances water stress tolerance by improving root hydraulic conductance in Solanum lycopersicum L. Front. Plant Sci 7:196Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Maghsoudi K, Emam Y, Pessarakli M (2016) Effect of silicon on photosynthetic gas exchange, photosynthetic pigments, cell membrane stability and relative water content of different wheat cultivars under drought stress conditions. J Plant Nut 39(7):1001–1015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Shahid M, Jaradat AA (2013) Barley: A salt tolerant cereal crop. Biosalinity news 14(1):4–5Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Newman CW, Newman RK (1992b) Nutritional aspects of barley seedstructure and composition. In: Shewry PR (ed) Barley: Genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology and biotechnology. CAB International, UK, pp 351–368Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Tappy L, Gugolz E, Wursch P (1996) Effects of breakfast cereals containing various amounts of beta glucans fibres on plasma glucose and insulin responses in NIDDM subjects. Diabetes Care 19:831–834CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Brennan CS, Cleary LJ (2005) The potential use of cereal (1→3, 1→4)-β-D-glucans as functional food ingredients. J Cereal Sci 42:1–13CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Perveen A, Naqvi IM, Shah R, Hasnain A (2008) Comparative germination of barley seeds (Hordeum vulgare) soaked in alkaline media and effects on starch and soluble proteins. J Appl Sci Environ Manage 12(3):5–9Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Yoshida S, Forno DA, Cock JH, Gomez KA (1976) Laboratory manual for physiological studies of rice. IRRI, Los Banos 61Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Davies BH (1976) Carotenoids. In: Goodwin TW (ed) Chemistry and Biochemistry of Plant Pigments. Academic Press London, UK, pp 138–165Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Velikova V, Yordanov I, Edreva A (2000) Oxidative stress and some antioxidant systems in acid rain-treated bean plants: Protective roles of exogenous polyamines. Plant Sci 151:59–66CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    Hodge DM, DeLong JM, Forney CF, Prange RK (1999) Improving the thiobarbituric acid-reactive-substances assay for estimating lipid peroxidation in plant tissues containing anthocyanin and other interfering compounds. Planta 207:604–611CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bradford MM (1976) A rapid and sensitive method for the quantitation of microgram quantities of protein utilizing the principle of protein–dye binding. Ann Biochem 72:248–254CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    Hodges DM, Nozzolillo C (1996) Anthocyanin and anthocyanoplast content of cruciferous seedlings subjected to mineral nutrient deficiencies. J Plant Physiol 147(6):749–754CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W (1999) Determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem 64:555–559CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Julkenen-Titto R (1985) Phenolic constituents in the leaves of northern willows: methods for the analysis of certain phenolics. Agric Food Chem 33:213–217CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gong H, Zhu X, Chen K, Wang S, Zhang C (2005) Silicon alleviates oxidative damage of wheat plants in pots under drought. Plant Sci 169:313–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Cakmark I, Strboe D, Marschner H (1993) Activities of hydrogen peroxide scavenging enzymes in germinating wheat seeds. J Exp Bot 44:127–132CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Hwang S-J, Hamayun M, Kim H-Y, Na C-I, Kim K-U, Shin D-H, Kim S-Y, Lee I-J (2007) Effect of nitrogen and silicon nutrition on bioactive gibberellin and growth of rice under field conditions. J Crop Sci Biotech 10(4):281–286Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Tripathi P, Tripathi RD, Singh RP, Dwivedi S, Goutam D, Shri M, Trivedi PK, Chakrabarty D (2013) Silicon mediates arsenic tolerance in rice (Oryza sativa L.) through lowering of arsenic uptake and improved antioxidant defence system. Ecol Eng 52:96–103CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Karmollachaab A, Gharineh MH (2015) Effect of silicon application on wheat seedlings growth under water-deficit stress induced by polyethylene glycol. Iran Agric Res 34:31–38Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Cui L, Li J, Fan Y, Xu S, Zhang Z (2006) High temperature effects on photosynthesis, PSII functionality and antioxidant activity of two Festuca arundinacea cultivars with different heat susceptibility. Bot Stud 47(1):61–69Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Hussain I, Wahid A, Rasheed R, Akram HM (2014) Seasonal differences in growth, photosynthetic pigments and gas exchange properties in two greenhouse grown maize (Zea mays L.) cultivars. Acta Bot Croat 73(2):333–345CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Gosavi GU, Jadhav AS, Kale AA, Gadakh SR, Pawar BD, Chimote VP (2014) Effect of heat stress on proline, chlorophyll content, heat shock proteins and antioxidant enzyme activity in sorghum (Sorghum bicolor) at seedlings stage. Indian J Biotech 13:356–363Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Aien A, Khetarpal S, Pal M (2011) Photosynthetic characteristics of potato cultivars grown under high temperature. Am-Euras J Agric Environ Sci 11(5):633–639Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Reda F, Mandoura HMH (2011) Response of enzymes activities, photosynthetic pigments, proline to low or high temperature stressed wheat plant (Triticum aestivum L.) in the presence or absence of exogenous proline or cysteine. Int J Academic Res 3:108–115Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Meiri D, Tazat K, Cohen-Peer R, Farchi-Pisanty O, Aviezer-Hagai K, Avni A, Breiman A (2010) Involvement of Arabidopsis ROF2 (FKBP65) in thermotolerance. Plant Mol Biol 72:191–203CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Djanaguiraman M, Prasad PVV, Seppanen M (2010) Selenium protects sorghum leaves from oxidative damage under high temperature stress by enhancing antioxidant defense system. Plant Physiol Biochem 48:999–1007CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Djanaguiraman M, Annie Sheeba J, Durga Devi D, Bangarusamy U (2009) Cotton leaf senescence can be delayed by nitrophenolate spray through enhanced antioxidant defence system. J Agron Crop Sci 195:213–224CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Yun-Ying C, Hua D, Li-Nian Y, Zhi-Qing W, Shao-Chuan Z, Jian-Chang Y (2008) Effect of heat stress during meiosis on grain yield of rice cultivars differing in heat tolerance and its physiological mechanism. Acta Agron Sin 34(12):2134–2142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Manivannan A, Ahn YK (2017) Silicon regulates potential genes involved in major physiological processes in plants to combat stress. Front Plant Sci 8:1346CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Abdel Latef AA, Tran LSP (2016) Impacts of priming with silicon on the growth and tolerance of maize plants to alkaline stress. Front Plant Sci 7:243CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Wahid A, Close TJ (2007) Expression of dehydrins under heat stress and their relationship with water relations of sugarcane leaves. Biol Plant 51:104–109CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Wiebbecke CF, Graham MA, Cianzio SR, Palmer RG (2012) Day temperature influences the male-sterile locus ms9 in soybean. Crop Sci 52:1503–1510CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Ding X, Jiang Y, Hao T, Jin H, Zhang H, He L, Zhou Q, Huang D, Hui D, Yu J (2016) Effects of heat shock on photosynthetic properties, antioxidant enzyme activity, and downy dildew of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.). PLoS ONE 11(4):e0152429CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 59.
    Ergin S, Gülen H, Kesici M, Turhan E, İpek A, Köksal N (2016) Effects of high temperature stress on enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants and proteins in strawberry plants. Turk J Agric For 40(6):908–917CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. 60.
    Abbas T, Balal RM, Shahid MA, Pervez MA, Ayyub CM, Aqueel MA, Javaid MM (2015) Silicon-induced alleviation of NaCl toxicity in okra (Abelmoschus esculentus) is associated with enhanced photosynthesis, osmoprotectants and antioxidant metabolism. Acta Physiol Plant 37:1–15CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. 61.
    Rivero RM, Ruiz JM, Garcia PC, López-Lefebre LR, Sánchez E, Romero L (2001) Resistance to cold and heat stress: accumulation of phenolic compounds in tomato and water melon plants. Plant Sci 160:315–321CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. 62.
    Shetty R, Fretté X, Jensen B, Shetty NP, Jensen JD, Jørgensen HJL, Christensen LP (2011) Silicon-induced changes in antifungal phenolic acids, flavonoids, and key phenylpropanoid pathway genes during the interaction between miniature roses and the biotrophic pathogen Podosphaera pannosa. Plant Physiol 157(4):2194–2205CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. 63.
    Jafari SR, Arvin SMJ, Kalantari KM (2015) Response of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) seedlings to exogenous silicon and salicylic acid under osmotic stress. Acta Biol Szeged 59(1):25–33Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Winkel-Shirley B (2002) Biosynthesis of flavonoids and effects of stress. Curr Opin Plant Biol 5:218–223CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. 65.
    Sarkis JR, Jaeschke DP, Tessaro IC, Marczak LD (2013) Effects of ohmic and conventional heating on anthocyanin degradation during the processing of blueberry pulp. LWT-Food SciTechnol 51(1):79–85CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. 66.
    Chutipaijit S, Cha-um S, Sompornpailin K (2011) High contents of proline and anthocyanin increase protective response to salinity in Oryza sativa L. spp. indica. Aust J Crop Sci 5:1191–1198Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Li P, Cheng L (2009) The elevated anthocyanin level in the shaded peel of ‘Anjou’pear enhances its tolerance to high temperature under high light. Plant Sci 177(5):418–426CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. 68.
    CY W, Chen D, Luo HW, Yao YM, Wang ZW, Tsutomu M, Tian XH (2013) Effects of exogenous silicon on the pollination and fertility characteristics of hybrid rice under heat stress during anthesis. Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao 24(11):3113–3122Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Tanyolac D, Ekmekçi Y, Ünalan Ş (2007) Changes in photochemical and antioxidant enzyme activities in maize (Zea mays L.) leaves exposed to excess copper. Chemosphere 67(1):89–98CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. 70.
    Fleck AT, Nye T, Repenning C, Stahl F, Zahn M, Schenk MK (2011) Silicon enhances suberization and lignification in roots of rice (Oryza sativa). J Exp Bot 62:2001–2011CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Nature B.V. 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BotanyGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan
  2. 2.Department of Applied Chemistry and BiochemistryGovernment College UniversityFaisalabadPakistan

Personalised recommendations