Comparative Analysis of Antigiardial Potential of Heat Inactivated and Probiotic Protein of Probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in Murine Giardiasis

  • Geeta Shukla
  • Shweta Kamboj
  • Bhawna Sharma


The present study was designed to envisage the antigiardial efficacy of killed probiotic and probiotic protein (PP) of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG in murine giardiasis. Experimentally, it was observed that animal administered either with probiotic protein emulsified with adjuvant (PP(E) + Giardia) or killed probiotic (killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia) had significantly reduced Giardia cycle with respect to observed severity and duration of giardiasis compared with Giardia-infected mice. Further, it was found that animals belonging to PP(E) + Giardia and killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia had significantly high levels of antigiardial IgA antibody and nitric oxide both in serum and in intestinal fluid compared with Giardia-infected and counter control mice. Histopathologyically, also animals belonging to PP(E) + Giardia and killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia animals had intact mucosal epithelium lining, basal crypts, and normal villi along with increased goblet cells compared with severe microvillus atrophy, vacuolated epithelial cells, and ileitis in Giardia-infected mice. This is the first-ever study to demonstrate that prior administration of either killed probiotics or probiotic protein of effective probiotic reduced both the severity and the duration of giardiasis mainly by modulating the gut microbiome and morphology along with mucosal immunity, but animals belonging to PP(E) + Giardia had better response than killed probiotic (i/p) + Giardia suggesting that probiotic components do have adjuvant potential and may be used as the vaccine candidate for gastrointestinal diseases.


Probiotics Giardiasis Killed probiotics Probiotic protein IgA antibody 



Authors greatly acknowledge the help provided by Mr. Mohan Singh Bhandari, Senior Technician, Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research (PGIMER), Chandigarh, India, for maintaining and providing the Giardia culture. Help provided by Ms. Swati for labeling the histological pictures of small intestine (jejunum) is acknowledged.

Authors’ Contribution

Geeta Shukla designed and edited the study. Shweta Kamboj performed, compiled the data, and wrote the manuscript. Bhawna Sharma helped in performing and analyzing the data.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of Interest

The authors declare that they have no competing interests.

Ethical Clearance

Animal experimentation procedures were approved by the Ethics Committee of the Animal Care of Panjab University, Chandigarh, India (PU/IAEC/S/15/82).


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© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Microbiology, Basic Medical SciencesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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