Production, Composition, and Application of Coffee and Its Industrial Residues
- 9.8k Downloads
Coffee is one of the most consumed beverages in the world and is the second largest traded commodity after petroleum. Due to the great demand of this product, large amounts of residues are generated in the coffee industry, which are toxic and represent serious environmental problems. Coffee silverskin and spent coffee grounds are the main coffee industry residues, obtained during the beans roasting, and the process to prepare “instant coffee”, respectively. Recently, some attempts have been made to use these residues for energy or value-added compounds production, as strategies to reduce their toxicity levels, while adding value to them. The present article provides an overview regarding coffee and its main industrial residues. In a first part, the composition of beans and their processing, as well as data about the coffee world production and exportation, are presented. In the sequence, the characteristics, chemical composition, and application of the main coffee industry residues are reviewed. Based on these data, it was concluded that coffee may be considered as one of the most valuable primary products in world trade, crucial to the economies and politics of many developing countries since its cultivation, processing, trading, transportation, and marketing provide employment for millions of people. As a consequence of this big market, the reuse of the main coffee industry residues is of large importance from environmental and economical viewpoints.
KeywordsCoffee Silverskin Spent grounds Cellulose Hemicellulose
- ABIC (2009). World exportation of coffee. Available at: http://www.abic.com.br/estat_exporta_ppaises.html. Accessed 05 March 2010.
- ABNT—Associação Brasileira de Normas Técnicas (1987), Resíduos Sólidos—Classificação—NBR 10.004. ABNT, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Belitz, H.-D., Grosch, W., & Schieberle, P. (2009). Coffee, tea, cocoa. In H.-D. Belitz, W. Grosch, & P. Schieberle (Eds.), Food Chemistry (4th ed., pp. 938–951). Leipzig: Springer.Google Scholar
- Carneiro, L.M., Silva, J.P.A., Mussatto, S.I., Roberto, I.C., & Teixeira, J.A. (2009). Determination of total carbohydrates content in coffee industry residues. In: 8th International Meeting of the Portuguese Carbohydrate Group, GLUPOR, pp 94, 6–10 September 2009, Braga, Portugal (Book of abstracts).Google Scholar
- Claude, B. (1979). Étude bibliographique: utilisation dês sous-produits du café. Café Cacao Thé, 23, 146–152.Google Scholar
- Comité Français du Café. (1997). Café—a la découverte du café. Paris: Adexquation Publicite.Google Scholar
- Cruz, G. M. (1983). Resíduos de cultura e indústria. Informe Agropecuário, 9, 32–37.Google Scholar
- Cunha, M. R. (1992). Apêndice estatístico. In E. L. Bacha & R. Greenhill (Eds.), 150 anos de café (pp. 286–388). Rio de Janeiro: Marcellino Martins & E. Johnston.Google Scholar
- EPA, United States Environmental Protection Agency (2010). Available at: http://www.epa.gov/chief/ap42/ch09/final/c9s13-2.pdf. Accessed 13 May 2010.
- Franca, A. S., Mendonça, J. C. F., & Oliveira, S. D. (2005). Composition of green and roasted coffees of different cup qualities. LWT—Food Science and Technology, 38, 709–715.Google Scholar
- Freitas, S.P., Monteiro, P.L. & Lago, R.C.A. (2000). Extração do óleo da borra de café solúvel com etanol comercial. In: I Simpósio de Pesquisa dos Cafés do Brasil, pp 740–743, 26–29 September 2000, Poços de Caldas/MG, Brazil (Book of expanded abstracts).Google Scholar
- ICO, International Coffee Organization (2010). Available at: http://www.ico.org/. Accessed 05 March 2010.
- Lago, R.C.A. & Antoniassi, R. (2001). Composição centesimal e de aminoácidos em cafés. In: II Simpósio de Pesquisa dos Cafés do Brasil. Available at: http://www.coffeebreak.com.br/ocafezal.asp?SE=8&ID=373. Accessed 02 December 2008.
- Lima, D. R. (2003). Café e Saúde: Manual de Farmacologia Clínica, Terapeutica e Toxicologia. Rio de Janeiro: Medsi Editora.Google Scholar
- Machado, E.S.M. (2009). Reaproveitamento de resíduos da indústria do café como matéria-prima para a produção de etanol. MSc thesis, Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.Google Scholar
- Miranda, M. Z., Grossmann, M. V. E., & Nabeshima, E. H. (1994). Utilization of brewers’ spent grain for the production of snacks with fiber. 1. Physicochemical characteristics. Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology, 37, 483–493.Google Scholar
- Murthy, P.S. & Naidu, M.M. (2010a). Production and application of xylanase from Penicillium sp. Utilizing coffee by-products. Food Bioprocess Technology, doi: 10.1007/s11947-010-0331-7.
- Murthy, P.S. & Naidu, M.M. (2010b). Recovery of phenolic antioxidants and functional compounds from coffee industry by-products. Food and Bioprocess Technology, doi: 10.1007/s11947-010-0363-z.
- Neves, C. (1974). A estória do café (p. 52). Rio de Janeiro: Instituto Brasileiro do Café.Google Scholar
- Petracco, M. (2001). Beverage preparation: brewing trends for the new millennium. In R. Clarke & O. Vitzthum (Eds.), Coffee: Recent Developments. Oxford: Blackwell Science.Google Scholar
- Pfluger, R. A. (1975). Soluble coffee processing. In C. L. Mantell (Ed.), Solid wastes: origin, collection, processing, and disposal. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Rawel, H. M., & Kulling, S. E. (2007). Nutritional contribution of coffee, cacao and tea phenolics to human health. Journal of Consumer Protection and Food Safety, 2, 399–406.Google Scholar
- Sampaio, A.R.M. (2010). Desenvolvimento de tecnologias para produção de etanol a partir do hidrolisado da borra de café. MSc thesis, Department of Biological Engineering, University of Minho, Braga, Portugal.Google Scholar
- Sobésa Café (2008). Available at: http://www.sobesa.com.br. Accessed 05 March 2010.
- Taunay, A.E. (1939). História do café no Brasil. No Brasil Imperial 1822–1872, tomo I, v. 5. Departamento Nacional do Café, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil.Google Scholar
- Townsley, P. M. (1979). Preparation of commercial products from brewer’s waste grain and trub. MBAA Technical Quarterly, 16, 130–134.Google Scholar
- Trugo, L. (2003). Coffee. In B. Caballero, L. Trugo, & P. Finglas (Eds.), Encyclopedia of Food Sciences and Nutrition (2nd ed.). London: Academic.Google Scholar