, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 57–61 | Cite as

Flash smelting and converting furnaces: A 50 year retrospect

  • Ilkka V. Kojo
  • Ari Jokilaakso
  • Pekka Hanniala
Historical Insight Vessel Integrity


1999 marked the 50th anniversary of the Outokumpu flash-smelting process. Originating during the post-World War II energy crisis, flash smelting is a high-intensity process developed to attain ever-increasing throughputs and intensities. Many innovations and continuous development ensued during the next 50 years before today’s state-of-the-art copper-making process chain and environmental benchmarking technology (e.g., Outokumpu flash smelting, Kennecott-Outokumpu flash converting, and flash technology) became possible. This article reviews how Outokumpu flash furnace design, especially cooling for higher heat loads, has improved over the years.


Copper Tube Spray Cool Flash Smelting Reaction Shaft High Heat Load 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


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Copyright information

© TMS 2000

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ilkka V. Kojo
    • 1
  • Ari Jokilaakso
    • 1
  • Pekka Hanniala
    • 1
  1. 1.Outokumpu Engineering Contractors OyUSA

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