Identification of a module of HAP transcription factors for seed development in rice

  • Van Ngoc Tuyet Nguyen
  • Yun-Shil Gho
  • Gynheung An
  • Jong-Seong JeonEmail author
  • Ki-Hong JungEmail author
Original Article


Heme activator protein (HAP) is a CCAAT box-binding factor family conserved in all higher eukaryotes. HAP transcription factors (TFs) consist of three subunits: HAP2, HAP3, and HAP5. Using recent rice genome information, we identified 11 HAP2 genes, 11 HAP3 genes, and 12 HAP5 genes. A HAP2 and five HAP5 genes were acknowledged more in this study than in the previous studies. Due to the functional association of HAP subunits, we carried out clustering analysis for expression patterns of all HAP members using anatomical meta-expression data of 983 rice Affymetrix arrays collected from the public database. Subsequently, we identified HAP members with endosperm and seed-preferred expression and focused on nine HAP family members associated with this expression pattern. We confirmed their expression patterns by RT-PCR analyses. The nine members were OsHAP2G, OsHAP2I, OsHAP3D, OsHAP3K, and five HAP5 genes (LOC_Os05g23910, LOC_Os10g11580, LOC_Os01g24460, LOC_Os01g01290, and LOC_Os01g39850). Promoter analyses using GUS activity again demonstrated that OsHAP3K is preferentially expressed in the aleurone layer of the seed and the LOC_Os05g23910 gene-encoding HAP5 showed endosperm-preferred expression. Network analysis using RiceNet suggests a functional gene network mediated by four rice HAP genes, further helping in the prediction of the biological function of OsHAP2G and OsHAP5 (LOC_Os10g11580). Our data provide new insight into HAP family-mediated regulatory pathways for endosperm or seed development in rice.


HAP family Endosperm/seed-preferred genes Meta-expression analysis Phylogenomic analysis 



This work was supported by a grant from Kyung Hee University (20151928).

Supplementary material

11816_2019_545_MOESM1_ESM.tif (7.5 mb)
Supplemental material 1: Figure S1. The magnified image of aleurone layer with GUS expression under HAP3K promoter. (TIFF 7725 kb)
11816_2019_545_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (330 kb)
Supplementary material 2: Table S1 and Table S2 (PDF 329 kb)


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Copyright information

© Korean Society for Plant Biotechnology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of BiotechnologyKyung Hee UniversityYonginKorea

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