Genome mutation after introduction of the gene editing by electroporation of Cas9 protein (GEEP) system in matured oocytes and putative zygotes

  • Maki Hirata
  • Fuminori TaniharaEmail author
  • Manita Wittayarat
  • Takayuki Hirano
  • Nhien Thi Nguyen
  • Quynh Anh Le
  • Zhao Namula
  • Masahiro Nii
  • Takeshige Otoi


The application of CRISPR/Cas9 strategy promises to rapidly increase the production of genetically engineered animals since it yields stably integrated transgenes. In the present study, we investigated the efficiency of target mutations after electroporation with the CRISPR/Cas9 system using sgRNAs to target the MSTN or FGF10 genes in porcine-matured oocytes and putative zygotes. Effects of pulse number (3–7 pulse repetitions) during electroporation on the embryonic development and mutation efficiency were also investigated. Our results showed that the cleavage rate of matured oocytes with electroporation treatment significantly decreased as compared with electroporated putative zygotes (p < 0.05). Moreover, the rates of blastocyst formation from oocytes/zygotes electroporated with more than 5 pulses decreased. Mutation efficiency was then assessed after sequencing the target sites in individual blastocysts derived from oocytes/zygotes electroporated by 3 and 5 pulses. No bi-allelic mutations in all examined blastocysts were observed in this study. There were no differences in the mutation rates (50–60%) between blastocysts derived from matured oocytes electroporated by 3 and 5 pulses, irrespective of targeting gene. In the targeting MSTN gene, however, the mutation rate (12.5%) of blastocysts derived from putative zygotes electroporated by 3 pulses tended to be lower than that (60%) from 5-pulsed electroporated putative zygotes. These data indicate that the type of eggs may influence not only their development after electroporation treatment but also the mutation rate in the resulting blastocysts.


CRISPR/Cas9 Electroporation In vitro fertilization Mosaic Pig 



The authors would like to thank Nippon Food Packer, K. K. Shikoku (Tokushima, Japan) for supplying pig ovaries.

Funding information

This work was supported in part by the Japan Science and Technology Agency/Japan International Cooperation Agency, Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (JST/JICA, SATREPS), and by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology (No. 17H03938 and 17K19325).

Compliance with ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflicts of interest.


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Copyright information

© The Society for In Vitro Biology 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Faculty of Bioscience and BioindustryTokushima UniversityTokushimaJapan
  2. 2.Faculty of Veterinary SciencePrince of Songkla UniversitySongkhlaThailand
  3. 3.Faculty of Veterinary ScienceGuangdong Ocean UniversityZhanjiangChina
  4. 4.Tokushima Prefectural Livestock Research InstituteTokushimaJapan

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