Cnidarian Primary Cell Culture as a Tool to Investigate the Effect of Thermal Stress at Cellular Level
In the context of global change, symbiotic cnidarians are largely affected by seawater temperature elevation leading to symbiosis breakdown. This process, also called bleaching, is triggered by the dysfunction of the symbiont photosystems causing an oxidative stress and cell death to both symbiont and host cells. In our study, we wanted to elucidate the intrinsic capacity of isolated animal cells to deal with thermal stress in the absence of symbiont. In that aim, we have characterized an animal primary cell culture form regenerating tentacles of the temperate sea anemone Anemonia viridis. We first compared the potential of whole tissue tentacle or separated epidermal or gastrodermal monolayers as tissue sources to settle animal cell cultures. Interestingly, only isolated cells extracted from whole tentacles allowed establishing a viable and proliferative primary cell culture throughout 31 days. The analysis of the expression of tissue-specific and pluripotency markers defined cultivated cells as differentiated cells with gastrodermal origin. The characterization of the animal primary cell culture allowed us to submit the obtained gastrodermal cells to hyperthermal stress (+ 5 and + 8 °C) during 1 and 7 days. Though cell viability was not affected at both hyperthermal stress conditions, cell growth drastically decreased. In addition, only a + 8 °C hyperthermia induced a transient increase of antioxidant defences at 1 day but no ubiquitin or carbonylation protein damages. These results demonstrated an intrinsic resistance of cnidarian gastrodermal cells to hyperthermal stress and then confirmed the role of symbionts in the hyperthermia sensitivity leading to bleaching.
KeywordsSea anemones Monolayers Cell differentiation Pluripotency Environmental stress Hyperthermia
Authors greatly acknowledge Laura Hedon for her precious technical help and Thamilla Zamoum for RT-PCR technical advises. Authors also thank Maeva Gesson and Magali Mondin of the PRISM (Platform of Resources in Imaging and Scientific Microscopy, Institut de Biologie Valrose, Université Nice Sophia Antipolis), Matthieu Rouleau and Aldine Amiel for scientific discussions. Authors are also grateful to Brigitte Poderini, for sea anemone maintenance in aquaria. We thank the editor and the reviewers for their useful criticisms, which helped us improve the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
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