Silver nanoparticle-embedded pectin-based hydrogel for adsorptive removal of dyes and metal ions

  • Arun K. Kodoth
  • Vishalakshi BadalamooleEmail author
Original Paper


Silver nanoparticles made by green synthesis have been incorporated into pectin-based copolymer gel to make a nanocomposite gel to be used as an adsorbent material for the removal of divalent metal ions and dyes from aqueous solutions. Silver nanoparticles were obtained by mixing silver nitrate with aqueous solution of pectin followed by microwave irradiation. The nanocomposite hydrogel was obtained by the microwave-assisted polymerization of 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propanesulfonic acid (AMPS) and acrylamide (AAm) in the presence of N,N’-methylene-bis-acrylamide (MBA) in pectin solution containing silver particles. Characterization of the nanocomposite gel was done by FTIR, TGA, XRD, FESEM and EDS techniques. The system was evaluated for its capacity to adsorb cationic dye, crystal violet (CV) and metal ions [Cu(II) and Pb(II)] from aqueous solutions. The presence of Ag nanoparticles is observed to enhance the adsorption capacity of the gel for the above mentioned adsorbates. The kinetic studies revealed second-order adsorption processes which fit well into Langmuir model. The evaluation of thermodynamic parameters indicated the adsorption process to be exothermic and spontaneous. A maximum of 1950 mg/g CV, 111 mg/g Cu(II) and 130 mg/g Pb(II) could be removed from the aqueous solution which is quite high in comparison with other reported materials. The desorption studies indicated the possible reusability of the nanocomposite.


Nanocomposite hydrogel Pectin Silver nanoparticles Microwave Dye adsorption Metal adsorption 



  1. 1.
    Lakshmipathy R, Sarada NC (2015) A fixed bed column study for the removal of Pb2+ ions by watermelon rind. Environ Sci Water Res Technol 1:244–250. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Shirsath SR, Patil AP, Bhanvase BA, Sonawane SH (2015) Ultrasonically prepared poly(acrylamide)-kaolin composite hydrogel for removal of crystal violet dye from wastewater. J Environ Chem Eng 3:1152–1162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Cao J, Cao H, Zhu Y, Wang S, Qian D, Chen G, Sun M, Huang W (2017) Rapid and effective removal of Cu2+ from aqueous solution using novel chitosan and laponite-based nanocomposite as adsorbent. Polymers 9:1–14. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Panic VV, Seslija SI, Nesic AR, Velickovic SJ (2013) Adsorption of azo dyes on polymer materials. Hem Ind 67:881–900CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Salehi R, Arami M, Mahmoodi NM, Bahrami H, Khorramfar S (2010) Novel biocompatible composite (chitosan-zinc oxide nanoparticle): preparation, characterization and dye adsorption properties. Colloids Surf B 80:86–93. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Shenvi SS, Isloor AM, Ismail AF, Shilton SJ, Ahmed AA (2015) Humic acid based biopolymeric membrane for effective removal of methylene blue and rhodamine B. Ind Eng Chem Res 54:4965–4975. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Mallampati R, Xuanjun L, Adin A, Valiyaveettil S (2015) Fruit peels as efficient renewable adsorbents for removal of dissolved heavy metals and dyes from water. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 3:1117–1124. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Mohammadi AA, Alinejad A, Kamarehie B, Javan S, Ghaderpoury A, Ahmadpour M, Ghaderpoori M (2017) Metal-organic framework Uio-66 for adsorption of methylene blue dye from aqueous solutions. Int J Environ Sci Technol 14:1959–1968. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Pourjavadi A, Hosseini SH, Seidib F, Soleyman R (2013) Magnetic removal of crystal violet from aqueous solutions using polysaccharide-based magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels. Polym Int 62:1038–1044. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Wang J, Liu F (2014) Enhanced and selective adsorption of heavy metal ions on ion-imprinted simultaneous interpenetrating network hydrogels. Des Monomers Polym 17:19–254. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Bhattacharyya R, Ray SK (2013) Kinetic and equilibrium modeling for adsorption of textile dyes in aqueous solutions by carboxymethyl cellulose/poly(acrylamide-co-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) semi-interpenetrating network hydrogel. Polym Eng Sci 53:2439–2453. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Zhang J, Wang A (2014) Polysaccharide-based composite hydrogels for removal of pollutants from water. CRC Press, Boca RatonCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Nicolaus B, Moriello VS, Lama L, Poli A, Gambacorta A (2004) Polysaccharides from extremophilic microorganisms. Orig Life Evol Biosph 34:159–169CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Kopecek J (2002) Polymer chemistry: swell gels. Nature 417:388–391CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Ullah F, Othman MBH, Javed F, Ahmad Z, Akil HM (2015) Classification, processing and application of hydrogels: a review. Mater Sci Eng C 57:414–433. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Chirani N, Yahia L, Gritsch L, Motta FL, Chirani S, Fare S (2016) History and applications of hydrogels. J Biomed Sci 4:1–23. Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Tu H, Yu Y, Chen J, Shi X, Zhou J, Deng H, Du Y (2017) Highly cost-effective and high-strength hydrogels as dye adsorbents from natural polymers: chitosan and cellulose. Polym Chem 8:2913–2921. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Attallah OA, Al-Ghobashy MA, Nebsen M, Salem MY (2016) Removal of cationic and anionic dyes from aqueous solution with magnetite/pectin and magnetite/silica/pectin hybrid nanocomposites: kinetic, isotherm and mechanism analysis. RSC Adv 6:11461–11480. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    Pandey N, Shukla SK, Singh NB (2017) Water purification by polymer nanocomposites: an overview. Nanocomposites 3:47–66. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. 20.
    Kono H (2015) Preparation and characterization of amphoteric cellulose hydrogels as adsorbents for the anionic dyes in aqueous solutions. Gels 1:94–116. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    Karthika JS, Vishalakshi B (2015) Novel stimuli responsive gellan gum-graft-poly(DMAEMA) hydrogel as adsorbent for anionic dye. Int J Biol Macromol 81:648–655. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    Peng N, Hu D, Zeng J, Li Y, Liang L, Chang C (2016) Superabsorbent cellulose-clay nanocomposite hydrogels for highly efficient removal of dye in water. ACS Sustain Chem Eng 4:7217–7224. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    Ghorai S, Sarkar A, Raoufi M, Panda AB, Hchonherr H (2014) Enhanced removal of methylene blue and methyl violet dyes from aqueous solution using a nanocomposite of hydrolyzed polyacrylamide grafted xanthan gum and incorporated nanosilica. ACS Appl Mater Interfaces 6:4766–4777. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Krishna KA, Vishalakshi B (2017) Gellan gum based novel composite hydrogel: evaluation as adsorbent for cationic dyes. J Appl Polym Sci 134:45527–45535. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. 25.
    Kurita O, Fujiwara T, Yamazaki E (2008) Characterization of the pectin extracted from citrus peel in the presence of citric acid. Carbohydr Polym 74:725–730. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    Singha NR, Mahapatra M, Karmakar M, Mondal H, Dutta A, Deb M, Mitra M, Roy C, Chattopadhyay PK, Maiti DK (2018) In situ allocation of a monomer in pectin-g-terpolymer hydrogels and effect of comonomer compositions on superadsorption of metal ions/dyes. ACS Omega 3:4163–4180. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Jung J, Arnold RD, Wicker L (2013) Pectin and charge modified pectin hydrogel beads as a colon-targeted drug delivery carrier. Colloids Surf B Biointerfaces 104:116–121. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    Munarin F, Guerreiro SG, Grellier MA, Tanzi MC, Barbosa MA, Petrini P, Granja PL (2011) Pectin-based injectable biomaterials for bone tissue engineering. Biomacromolecules 12:568–577. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. 29.
    Thakur BR, Singh RK, Handa AK, Rao MA (1997) Chemistry and uses of pectin—a review. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 37:47–73. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    Mishra RK, Datt M, Banthia AK (2008) Synthesis and characterization of pectin/PVP hydrogel membranes for drug delivery system. AAPS Pharmscitech 9:395–403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    Amin MT, Alazba AA, Manzoor U (2014) A review of removal of pollutants from water/wastewater using different types of nanomaterials. Adv Mater Sci Eng. Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Basu S, Samanta HS, Ganguly J (2018) Green synthesis and swelling behavior of Ag-nanocomposite semi-IPN hydrogels and their drug delivery using dolichos biflorus Lin. Soft Matter 16:7–19. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    Navarro MAG, Rosales JAA, Vazquez EEL, Cortez IEM, Castro AT, Gonzalez VG (2013) Totally ecofriendly synthesis of silver nanoparticles from aqueous dissolution of polysaccharides. Int J Polym Sci. Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Krishna KA, Vishalakshi B (2017) Pectin based ZnO nanocomposite hydrogel: evaluation as adsorbent for divalent metal ions from aqueous solutions. Elixir Nanotechnol 107:47326–47331Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Moharana B, Preetha SP, Selvasubramanian S, Malathi S, Balasubramanian S (2014) Synthesis and characterization of pectin capped silver nanoparticles and exploration of its anticancer potentials in experimental carcinogenesis in vitro. Indo Am J Pharm Res 4:5576–5583. Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Sundarajan S, Sameem SM, Sankaranarayanan S, Ramaraj S (2013) Synthesis, characterization and application of zero-valent silver nano adsorbents. IJIRSET 2:8023–8037Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Babu VR,  Kim C, Kim S, Ahn C, Lee YI (2010) Development of semi-interpenetrating carbohydrate polymeric hydrogels embedded silver nanoparticles and its facile studies on E. coli. Carbohydr Polym 81:196–202. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. 38.
    Kabiri K, Mehr MJZ, Mirzadeh H, Kheirabadi M (2010) Solvent-, ion- and pH-specific swelling of poly(2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid) superabsorbing gels. J Polym Res 17:203–212. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. 39.
    Bajpai SK (2001) Swelling-deswelling behavior of poly(acrylamide-co-maleic acid) hydrogels. J Appl Polym Sci 80:2782–2789. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. 40.
    Gueu S, Yao B, Adouby K, Ado G (2007) Kinetics and thermodynamics study of lead adsorption on to activated carbons from coconut and seed hull of the palm tree. Int J Environ Sci Technol 4:11–17. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. 41.
    Langmuir I (1918) The adsorption of gases on plane surfaces of glass, mica and platinum. J Am Chem Soc 40:1361–1403. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. 42.
    Dada AO, Olalekan AP, Olatunya AM, Dada O (2012) Langmuir, Freundlich, Temkin and Dubinin-Radushkevich isotherm studies of equilibrium sorption of Zn2+ unto phosphoric acid modified rice husk. IOSR-JAC 3:38–45. Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Ho YS, McKay G (1999) Pseudo-second order model for sorption process. Process Biochem 34:451–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. 44.
    Liu H, Liu H (2017) Selective dye adsorption and metal ion detection using multifunctional silsesquioxane-based tetraphenylethene-linked nanoporous polymers. J Mater Chem A 5:9156–9162. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pour ZS, Ghaemy M (2015) Removal of dyes and heavy metal ions from water by magnetic hydrogel beads based on poly(vinyl alcohol)/carboxymetyl starch-g-poly(vinyl imidazole). RSC Adv 5:64106–64118. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. 46.
    Saad M, Tahir H, Khan J, Hameed U, Saud A (2017) Synthesis of polyaniline nanoparticles and their application for the removal of Crystal Violet dye by ultrasonicated adsorption process based on response surface methodology. Ultrason Sonochem 34:600–608. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. 47.
    Yan H, Li H, Yang H, Li A, Cheng R (2013) Removal of various cationic dyes from aqueous solutions using a kind of fully biodegradable magnetic composite microsphere. Chem Eng J 223:402–411. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. 48.
    Mahdavinia GR, Hasanpour J, Rahmani Z, Karami S, Etemadi H (2013) Nanocomposite hydrogel from grafting of acrylamide onto HPMC using sodium montmorillonite nanoclay and removal of crystal violet dye. Cellulose 20:2591–2604. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. 49.
    Sun P, Hui C, Khan RA, Du J, Zhang Q, Zhao YH (2015) Efficient removal of crystal violet using Fe3O4-coated biochar: the role of the Fe3O4 nanoparticles and modeling study their adsorption behavior. Sci Rep 5:1–15. Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Medina RP, Nadres ET Jr, Florencio CB, Rodriguesa DF (2016) Incorporation of graphene oxide into chitosan-poly(acrylic acid) porous polymer nanocomposite for enhanced lead adsorption. Environ Sci Nano 3:638–646. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. 51.
    Liu C, Zhang D, Zhao L, Lu X, Zhang P, He S, Hu G, Tang X (2016) Synthesis of a thiacalix[4]arenetetrasulfonatefunctionalized reduced graphene oxide adsorbent for the removal of lead(II) and cadmium(II) from aqueous solutions. RSC Adv 6:113352–113365. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. 52.
    Yu Y, Hu Z, Chen Z, Yang J, Gao H, Chen Z (2016) Organically-modified magnesium silicate nanocomposites for high-performance heavy metal removal. RSC Adv 6:97523–97531. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 53.
    Reddy NS, Rao KM, Vania TJS, Rao KSVK, Lee YI (2015) Pectin/poly(acrylamide-co-acrylamidoglycolic acid) pH sensitive semi-IPN hydrogels: selective removal of Cu2+ and Ni2+, modeling, and kinetic studies. Desalin Water Treat 57:6503–6514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. 54.
    Onundi YB, Mamun AA, Al Khatib MF, Ahmed YM (2010) Adsorption of copper, nickel and lead ions from synthetic semiconductor industrial wastewater by palm shell activated carbon. Int J Environ Sci Technol 7:751–758. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 55.
    Kundu D, Hazra C, Chatterjee A, Chaudhari A, Mishra S (2014) Sonochemical synthesis of poly(methyl methacrylate) core-surfactin shell nanoparticles for recyclable removal of heavy metal ions and its cytotoxicity. RSC Adv 4:24991–25004. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. 56.
    Radi S, Tighadouini S, Bacquet M, Degoutin S, Janus L, Mabkhot YN (2016) Fabrication and covalent modification of highly chelate hybrid material based on silica-bipyridine framework for efficient adsorption of heavy metals: isotherms, kinetics and thermodynamics studies. RSC Adv 6:82505–82514. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 57.
    Tan WX, Lin ZT, Bu HT, Tian Y, Jiang GB (2012) Nano-micelles based on a rosin derivative as potent sorbents and sinking agents with high absorption capabilities for the removal of metal ions. RSC Adv 2:7279–7289. CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Post-Graduate Studies and Research in ChemistryMangalore UniversityMangalagangothri, DKIndia

Personalised recommendations