Abstract

The Nelson and Narens (Journal of Verbal Learning and Verbal Behavior 19:338–368, 1980) general knowledge norms have been valuable to researchers in many fields. However, much has changed over the 32 years since the 1980 norms. For example, in 1980, most people knew the answer to the question “What is the name of the Lone Ranger’s Indian sidekick?” (answer: Tonto), whereas in 2012, few people know this answer. Thus, we updated the 1980 norms and expanded them by providing new measures. In particular, we report two new metacognitive measures (confidence judgments and peer judgments) and provide a detailed report of commission errors. Each of these measures will be valuable to researchers, and together they are likely to facilitate future research in a number of fields, such as research investigating memory illusions, metamemory processes, and error correction. The presence of substantial generational shifts from 1980 to 2012 necessitates the use of updated norms.

Keywords

General knowledge questions Metacognition Commission errors

Over three decades ago, Nelson and Narens (1980) published normative information for a set of questions over multiple domains of knowledge. They created 300 questions and assessed several cognitive and metacognitive measures, including the probability of recall and the latency to generate a response. Their norms have been used widely in research investigating the processes involved in long-term memory (e.g., Fazio & Marsh, 2008; Hanley, 2011; Marsh, Meade, & Roediger, 2003; Murayama & Kuhbandner, 2011; Woltz, Gardner, & Gyll, 2000), those involved in metacognition (e.g., Barber, Rajaram, & Marsh, 2008; Metcalfe & Finn, 2011; Nelson, Leonesio, Shimamura, Landwehr, & Narens, 1982; Schwartz, 2001; Singer & Tiede, 2008; Weinstein & Roediger, 2010; Winne & Muis, 2011), and how all of these processes change over the lifespan (e.g., Cosentino, Metcalfe, Butterfield, & Stern, 2007; Dodson, Bawa, & Krueger, 2007; MacDonald, Dixon, Cohen, & Hazlitt, 2004; Mansueti, de Frias, Bub, & Dixon, 2008; Marsh, Balota, & Roediger, 2005; Metcalfe & Finn, 2012). Given the continued reliance on these measures, our primary goals were to (a) update the 1980 norms and assess shifts in knowledge that have occurred over the 32 years since they were collected, and (b) expand the 1980 norms by providing new measures for the questions.

The three-decade gap warrants new data collection in part because knowledge is likely to have shifted in comparison with people’s knowledge in 1980. For example, in 1980 most people knew the answer to the question “What is the name of the Lone Ranger’s Indian sidekick?” (Tonto; 1980 probability of recall = .87). Given that the Lone Ranger was most popular in the early to mid-1900s, it is reasonable that people in 2012 would be less likely to know that Tonto was the Lone Ranger’s sidekick. Conversely, for other information, generational differences may lead to increased knowledge in 2012 relative to 1980. For instance, in 1980 very few people knew the answer to the question “Of which country is Baghdad the capital?” (1980 probability of recall = .07). Iraq, which is the correct response, has been in the news a great deal since the 1990s, most notably in reference to the Iraq war, which began in 2003. Given such generational shifts, researchers should not rely on the 1980 norms.

We also identified several questions from the 1980 norms that were either outdated or incorrect. For instance, consider the question “What is the name of the company that produces Baby Ruth candy bars?” In 1980, the correct response was Curtiss, but now Nestle produces this candy bar. As an example of incorrect information, consider the question “What is the last name of the first American author to win the Nobel Prize for literature?” In the 1980 norms, the correct answer was listed as “Henry,” but the correct answer is “Lewis.”

In addition to updating the 1980 norms and correcting such errors, we also wished to provide three new measures: confidence judgments, peer judgments, and commission errors. We will discuss each in turn. After answering each question, participants made a confidence judgment about the likelihood (0 %–100 %) that the response was correct. Confidence judgments provide an index of how certain people are that their knowledge is correct. To foreshadow, in some cases, people’s confidence was in line with their knowledge: that is, high confidence for correct responses and low confidence for incorrect responses. However, for other questions, people’s confidence was a poor indicator of knowledge. For decades, research has investigated illusions of memory such as confidently held false memories. Such research has commonly investigated false memories that have been created from word lists (e.g., Anastasi, Rhodes, & Burns, 2000; Gallo, 2010; Roediger & McDermott, 1995), produced by misinformation (e.g., Frenda, Nichols, & Loftus, 2011; Loftus & Hoffman, 1989), or implanted into one’s past (e.g., Loftus, 1997). The expanded measures reported here provide researchers with information that will facilitate research on long-term false memories for general knowledge information by identifying questions with low probabilities of recall and high levels of confidence in errors.

We also created a new metacognitive measure, peer judgments, by having people predict how many peers would correctly answer each question. This measure provides normative information about people’s sense of how their own knowledge compares with that of others, which will be useful within a number of research areas. For instance, researchers have increasingly focused on metacognitive judgments made for oneself, in comparison with judgments for another person (e.g., Kelley & Jacoby, 1996; Koriat & Ackerman, 2010; Nickerson, 1999). Such research has focused on the influence of one’s subjective experience on metacognitive processes, and on the relationship between predictions made for oneself as compared with predictions made for someone else. The peer judgments reported here provide an index of the latter relationship. To preview, for some questions the confidence and peer judgments were strongly associated (e.g., Pearson’s r > .80), whereas for other questions the measures were weakly associated (e.g., Pearson’s r < .30). Thus, researchers can identify subsets of questions for which confidence and peer judgments are highly correlated, and other subsets for which the two measures are uncorrelated or weakly correlated.

Perhaps most importantly, we have provided a detailed assessment of the kinds of errors that people made when answering each question. In particular, we focused on commission errors by providing the most commonly reported incorrect responses and confidence in these errors. Information about commissions and normative confidence in these errors may support inquiry in numerous areas, such as in research investigating false memories and error correction. Concerning the latter area, researchers are currently investigating how people correct errors (e.g., Butler, Fazio, & Marsh, 2011; Butterfield & Metcalfe, 2001). To do so, the researchers use items for which people generate responses that are incorrect but are held in high confidence, as compared with errors that are held in low confidence. The commission errors reported here provide normative values for this kind of information by identifying questions for which commission errors are both frequent and associated with differing levels of confidence.

Method

Participants, materials, and procedure

Six hundred seventy one students (age: M = 20.1, SE = 0.14, n = 639 who reported age; 443 females, 207 males, n = 650 who reported gender) from two large state universities participated in exchange for course credit. The participants were recruited from introductory psychology courses at Kent State University (KSU; n = 636, who provided 51,245 responses included in the probability of recall), as well as from introduction to psychology and introduction to research methods courses at Colorado State University (CSU; n = 35, who provided 1,628 responses included in the probability of recall). This sample was selected for comparison purposes with the student sample involved in the original 1980 norms. However, future research may profit by targeting a broader sample of participants (e.g., community samples) to evaluate the degree to which the 2012 norms extend to more diverse samples.

The materials were identical to those used in the Nelson and Narens (1980) norms. These questions tapped general knowledge in several domains, including art, body and health, entertainment, games, geography, history, literature, science and nature, and sports (see Table A1). The procedure was similar to that employed for the 1980 norms, with a few exceptions. The odd-numbered questions from the 1980 norms were assigned to Set A, and the even-numbered questions were assigned to Set B (150 questions per set). Participants were randomly assigned to Set A or B. A small subset of participants (n = 56) completed one set and at least a portion of the second set of questions. For both sets, the entire experiment was computerized, and the questions were randomly ordered anew for each participant. Questions were presented in uppercase letters, one at a time in the center of the screen. Participants were given the following instructions:

This experiment will test your knowledge about general kinds of information. You will be asked a question, and you will type your best guess in the space provided below the question. The answer will always consist of exactly one word and will never be longer than one word. As each question is presented search your memory hard in an attempt to find the answer to the question. When you have determined the answer there is no need to waste extra time before typing in your response. However, if you do not locate the answer immediately, give yourself a chance to find it by searching your memory a bit more. Some questions may take a while before you locate an answer. The questions vary greatly in difficulty such that you will probably be able to answer some easily, while others will be harder, and still others you may not know at all. If, after searching your memory, you are sure you don’t know the answer, then type the word “NEXT” and proceed to the next question. Please never leave an answer space blank; for every answer space, either fill in “NEXT” or fill in your best guess. However, there is no penalty for guessing, and incorrect answers will not affect your score, so be sure to take a guess, if you can, whenever you are unsure. We are only concerned that you get as many questions correct as you possibly can.

For each response, the total amount of time to read the question, search memory, and type a response was measured as an index of response latency. Following each question, participants made a confidence judgment on a scale from 0 to 100, indicating their level of confidence that their answer was correct, such that 0 % indicated not confident and 100 % indicated absolutely confident. After the confidence judgment the participants made a peer judgment, given the following instructions:

Make a judgment about how well you think other people would do with that question. Specifically, if we gave the question to 100 students who were about your age, how many of them do you think would be able to answer the question correctly?

Participants based their judgments on a scale from 0 to 100 people, where 0 indicated that no other students would get the question correct, and 100 indicated that all 100 students would get the question correct.

The questions in most cases were administered after participants had finished an unrelated experimental protocol. Given that participants took different amounts of time to finish the initial protocol, they had different amounts of time remaining (given that they participated for a fixed amount of time overall) to answer questions and make their judgments. Also, with the time remaining, a participant might not have completed all of the questions in his or her assigned set. Thus, the number of observations varied per question. However, participants completed all responses (i.e., recall attempt, confidence judgment, and peer judgment) for each question that they attempted, which prevented reporting partial information per question. Confidence judgments were not measured for omission errors (i.e., typing NEXT), because confidence judgments for omissions should be 0, and hence are uninteresting. However, for omission errors participants did provide a peer judgment, so more observations would typically be available for peer than for confidence judgments. Thus, given that the numbers of observations per question and per measure could vary for principled reasons, Table A1 includes the number of responses that contributed to each measure.

Data scoring

As for the 1980 norms, the data were scored so that answers were considered correct if the first four letters of the response matched the correct answer. Due to our interest in commission errors, the data were then also hand scored by the first author, to adjust for spelling. The vast majority of the hand scoring was objective (e.g., WHODINI for HOUDINI, TERANCHALA for TARANTULA, and OSTERAGE for OSTRICH were all considered correct), but in the rare cases in which scoring was uncertain, the responses were discussed and resolved by the first three authors. Hand scoring also allowed us to adjust for cases in which the first four letters could indicate a correct or incorrect response (e.g., for Question 83, the correct response was METEORS, not METEORITES).

Results and discussion

The results were collapsed across testing locations (i.e., KSU and CSU) because the Spearman correlation (ρ) between the rank-ordered probabilities of correct recall across questions was high (.94, p < .001), indicating that the question orders were largely consistent across the two locations. On average, participants answered 79.0 (SE = 2.3) questions (range from 1 to 300), provided confidence judgments for 34.5 (SE = 1.1) questions (range from 1 to 214), and provided peer judgments for 80.6 (SE = 2.3) questions (range from 1 to 300). The total number of responses per question ranged from 126 to 232. Although this is somewhat lower than the total number of responses per item reported in the original norms (N = 270), the number of responses per item in the present norms is nonetheless sufficient for establishing normative patterns of performance.

The results for each question are presented in Table A1. This table contains normative data for 299 of the original 300 questions (one question—“What is the capital of Czechoslovakia?”—was dropped because it was outdated and had no correct answer). Questions are reported in rank order from the highest to the lowest probability of correct recall. For purposes of comparison, the 1980 rank order is provided as well. Most importantly, for each question Table A1 provides (a) the probability of recall, (b) the mean response latencies (in seconds) for correct and incorrect responses, (c) the proportions of commission and omission errors, (d) the mean confidence judgment across all nonomission responses, as well as the mean confidence judgment computed separately for correct responses and commission errors, (e) the mean peer judgment, and (f) the correlation between the confidence and peer judgments. With reference to point (b), response latencies for incorrect responses are provided only for commission errors, and not for omission errors.

As is detailed in the Method section, the number of responses varied for each measure. For example, when participants omitted an answer, they did not make a confidence judgment, but they did make a peer judgment. The number of responses also varied slightly due to the participants’ typing errors. For example, given that participants were instructed (and reminded) that answers were one-word responses, if participants typed a number (e.g., “5,” “7,” or “12”), this response was considered a typing error (as if the participant had accidentally proceeded from a question without getting a chance to respond) and did not contribute to the probability of recall. Accordingly, in Table A1, we report the number of responses that contributed to each measure.

To assess generational stability, a coarse-grained measure was the rank-order correlation between the new norms and the original ones. The Spearman correlation (ρ) was .83 (p < .001), which suggests stability from 1980 to 2012. Even so, this value may overestimate stability, and it does not indicate that the new norms simply duplicated the original ones. For instance, consider that in 1980 the most challenging quartile of questions (the items ranked 225–300) contained only four questions that were impossible for participants to answer (i.e., the probability of correct recall was zero). By contrast, in 2012, the majority of the items (68 %, or 51 questions) in this last quartile were impossible. Thus, if researchers today wanted to select relatively difficult questions and used the original norms, they might instead be selecting questions with which many—if not all—of their college participants had no experience.

For a fine-grained measure of generational stability, we conducted an independent-samples t test for each question to compare the current recall against the normative values from the 1980 norms. The p value was set at .0002 to adjust for the 299 tests. The results revealed nonsignificant differences indicating generational stability for 157 questions, and significant differences indicating generational instability for 142 questions. For the latter set, participants in 2012 had a higher probability of recall for only three questions, and a lower probability of recall for 139 questions (see Table A1). The shifts in knowledge for some questions were likely due to the content being dated, and people in 2012 having had less exposure to the information. This shift is most likely the case for many of the game questions—for example, “Which game uses a doubling cube?” (backgammon). In 2012, backgammon is apparently not a popular game among college-aged students.

Table A2 provides details about commission errors, including (a) the most common commission errors, (b) how often each commission error occurred out of all of the commission responses for that question, (c) how often the commission error occurred out of all responses for that question, and (d) the mean confidence in the commission error. Some commission errors were made with high confidence. For example, participants were highly confident (M = 86.5 %) that the correct answer to “What is the name of a dried grape?” is “prune.” For other commission errors, participants were not confident. For example, they were not confident (M = 3.1 %) that “Radium” is the correct answer to “What is the last name of the scientist who discovered radium?” In this particular case, participants may have been guessing.

As noted previously, we identified questions that were either outdated or incorrect from the 1980 norms. Table A3 provides details about these questions, including (a) the 1980 correct answer and (b) the 2012 correct answer. For a final subset of questions, the answer from the 1980 norms was correct, but participants provided alternative responses that were correct as well. For example, the 1980 correct answer to the question “What is the name of an airplane without an engine?” was “glider.” This answer is still correct, of course, but participants provided two alternative responses that were also correct (“paper” and “model”).

To conclude, the update to this set of norms is essential, because much has changed since the original norms were collected. As a final example, in 1980 the question “What was the last name of the man who was the voice of Mr. Magoo?” (answer: “Backus”) was considered moderately difficult (1980 probability of recall = .341), but in 2012 this question was impossible, because none of our participants answered it correctly. Even so, the updated norms maintained variability in the question difficulty (range: .933–.000), and hence will remain a valuable research tool.

Author note

This research was supported by the James S. McDonnell Foundation 21st Century Science Initiative in Bridging Brain, Mind, and Behavior Collaborative Award. Thanks to Jeff Anastasi and Beth Marsh for helpful comments on a draft of the manuscript.

Appendix

Table A1

Probabilities of recall, response latencies, proportions of errors, confidence judgments, peer judgments, and correlations between the confidence and peer judgments for 299 general knowledge questions

2012 Rank Order

1980 Rank Order

Question and Correct Response

Probability of Recall

Response Latency

Proportion of Errors

Confidence Judgments

Peer Judgments

Judge Corrs

M

N rc

N ri

RLc

RLi

Ec

Eo

M

CJc

CJi

N ci

M

N pj

r

1

2

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE HORSE-LIKE ANIMAL WITH BLACK AND WHITE STRIPES? (ZEBRA)

.933

196

14

6.3

14.7

.03

.04

95.0

96.2

58.2

6

89.4

213

.66*

2

3

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LONG SLEEP SOME ANIMALS GO THROUGH DURING THE ENTIRE WINTER? (HIBERNATION)

.890

137

17

9.6

11.8

.06

.05

92.5

95.6

49.5

10

83.8

154

.61*

3

16

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE RUBBER OBJECT THAT IS HIT BACK AND FORTH BY HOCKEY PLAYERS? (PUCK)

.888

198

25

6.7

10.3

.04

.08

93.8

96.3

29.9

8

83.1

226

.53*

4

15

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE REMAINS OF PLANTS AND ANIMALS THAT ARE FOUND IN STONE? (FOSSILS)

.873

137

20

9.1

23.5

.06

.07

89.0

93.3

24.3

9

79.0

159

.65*

5

13

WHICH PRECIOUS GEM IS RED? (RUBY)

.849

141

25

4.6

11.2

.08

.07

8.6

90.8

33.4

14

77.6

166

.64*

6

25

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SEVERE HEADACHE THAT RETURNS PERIODICALLY AND OFTEN IS ACCOMPANIED BY NAUSEA? (MIGRAINE)

.847

133

24

10.2

15.2

.07

.08

80.5

84.0

38.7

11

69.8

159

.64*

7

30

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “ROMEO AND JULIET”? (SHAKESPEARE)

.843

172

32

10.8

14.5

.03

.13

89.3

90.8

45.0

6

79.9

210

.61*

8

9

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A DRIED GRAPE? (RAISIN)

.835

116

23

6.8

6.5

.12

.05

87.7

91.0

64.1

16

83.9

140

.52*

9

1

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE COMIC STRIP CHARACTER WHO EATS SPINACH TO INCREASE HIS STRENGTH? (POPEYE)b

.824

112

24

8.5

12.7

.06

.12

91.5

94.1

56.3

8

73.4

141

.66*

10

93

WHAT ANIMAL RUNS THE FASTEST? (CHEETAH)a

.816

115

26

5.6

12.8

.13

.05

76.2

83.5

32.1

19

71.1

141

.72*

11

33

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PROCESS BY WHICH PLANTS MAKE THEIR FOOD? (PHOTOSYNTHESIS)

.800

104

26

11.8

15.0

.04

.16

84.3

87.4

19.0

5

70.2

134

.40*

12

19

WHAT IS THE NAME OF DOROTHY’S DOG IN “THE WIZARD OF OZ”? (TOTO)

.799

123

31

6.7

16.9

.08

.12

89.6

97.0

13.9

12

80.7

154

.69*

13

7

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MOLTEN ROCK THAT RUNS DOWN THE SIDE OF A VOLCANO DURING AN ERUPTION? (LAVA)

.793

119

31

8.6

11.7

.10

.11

87.2

90.7

59.7

15

77.1

150

.54*

14

37

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE SUPPOSEDLY UNSINKABLE SHIP THAT SUNK ON ITS MAIDEN VOYAGE IN 1912? (TITANIC)

.789

112

30

9.3

12.9

.05

.16

83.8

87.5

24.3

7

72.5

144

.81*

15

8

WHICH SPORT USES THE TERMS “GUTTER” AND “ALLEY”? (BOWLING)

.788

164

44

6.6

11.5

.09

.12

86.1

93.5

22.1

19

75.0

210

.80*

16

57

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A GIANT OCEAN WAVE CAUSED BY AN EARTHQUAKE? (TSUNAMI)

.784

120

33

10.5

14.3

.09

.12

84.4

89.2

45.7

15

72.7

153

.63*

17

24

WHAT IS THE TERM FOR HITTING A VOLLEYBALL DOWN HARD INTO THE OPPONENT’S COURT? (SPIKE)

.784

163

45

7.2

11.3

.12

.10

86.9

91.1

59.4

25

74.9

214

.49*

18

73

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE VILLAINOUS CAPTAIN IN THE STORY “PETER PAN”? (HOOK)a

.781

114

32

8.5

16.1

.03

.18

89.9

92.6

28.0

5

77.6

146

.61*

19

5

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF TARZAN’S GIRLFRIEND? (JANE)

.781

121

34

4.3

18.7

.12

.10

85.9

96.5

14.8

18

74.0

156

.71*

20

4

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BROTHERS WHO FLEW THE FIRST AIRPLANE AT KITTY HAWK? (WRIGHT)b

.751

151

50

8.6

11.5

.05

.19

81.1

83.5

48.2

11

65.4

204

.72*

21

17

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR A MEDICAL DOCTOR WHO SPECIALIZES IN CUTTING THE BODY? (SURGEON)

.748

101

34

11.5

8.7

.04

.21

70.7

74.0

15.0

6

59.0

139

.80*

22

53

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST PERSON TO SET FOOT ON THE MOON? (ARMSTRONG)

.741

100

35

11.0

16.2

.12

.14

74.6

77.6

55.8

16

72.0

135

.77*

23

6

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF FRANCE? (PARIS)b

.730

157

58

5.8

9.3

.11

.16

68.0

71.9

42.6

24

68.0

219

.78*

24

11

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CRIME IN WHICH A BUILDING OR PROPERTY IS PURPOSELY SET ON FIRE? (ARSON)b

.722

109

42

8.6

18.0

.14

.14

79.1

88.3

31.9

21

68.7

153

.72*

25

79

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SHORT PLEATED SKIRT WORN BY MEN IN SCOTLAND? (KILT)

.717

99

39

6.7

13.9

.08

.20

87.9

95.9

15.4

11

70.1

138

.75*

26

18

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN INABILITY TO SLEEP? (INSOMNIA)

.714

150

60

7.6

19.0

.18

.11

81.0

89.4

47.3

37

68.5

214

.65*

27

26

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR A MEDICAL DOCTOR WHO SPECIALIZES IN DISEASES OF THE SKIN? (DERMATOLOGIST)

.692

146

65

12.3

13.7

.09

.22

80.7

86.7

34.5

19

60.9

217

.66*

28

43

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LARGEST OCEAN ON EARTH? (PACIFIC)

.685

98

45

8.1

13.4

.28

.03

65.4

72.2

48.9

40

70.3

144

.71*

29

22

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SHIP THAT CARRIED THE PILGRIMS TO AMERICA IN 1620? (MAYFLOWER)b

.663

130

66

8.5

17.6

.16

.18

77.7

86.6

40.3

31

66.5

202

.80*

30

41

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR A CYCLONE THAT OCCURS OVER LAND? (TORNADO)

.641

82

46

8.0

10.8

.18

.18

79.3

86.9

52.3

23

68.4

128

.82*

31

10

WHICH SPORT IS ASSOCIATED WITH WIMBLEDON? (TENNIS)b

.619

135

83

5.4

10.4

.14

.24

80.2

91.5

29.0

30

58.7

224

.71*

32

34

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BIRD THAT CANNOT FLY AND IS THE LARGEST BIRD ON EARTH? (OSTRICH)b

.603

132

87

11.7

14.4

.29

.11

69.2

79.1

48.5

63

62.8

221

.68*

33

63

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ISLAND-CITY BELIEVED SINCE ANTIQUITY TO HAVE SUNK INTO THE OCEAN? (ATLANTIS)

.593

86

59

11.7

16.4

.06

.34

78.5

85.1

15.4

9

57.6

147

.85*

34

88

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LIZARD THAT CHANGES ITS COLOR TO MATCH THE SURROUNDINGS? (CHAMELEON)

.589

126

88

11.3

13.2

.34

.07

70.4

85.1

45.0

73

68.4

218

.69*

35

35

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE THICK LAYER OF FAT ON A WHALE? (BLUBBER)b

.572

79

59

6.2

9.0

.17

.26

73.4

85.5

32.0

23

56.0

139

.87*

36

49

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BASEBALL PLAYER WHO HAD THE MOST HOME RUNS IN A SINGLE SEASON PRIOR TO 1961? (RUTH)b

.568

84

64

12.3

16.8

.10

.33

48.6

49.6

43.1

15

46.8

151

.44*

37

59

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A YOUNG SHEEP? (LAMB)

.561

83

65

7.8

11.8

.22

.22

71.6

87.2

32.5

33

65.6

149

.74*

38

65

WHAT IS THE LARGEST PLANET IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM? (JUPITER)

.559

80

63

8.1

10.9

.38

.06

68.4

81.0

50.0

55

69.3

144

.75*

39

52

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT USED AT SEA TO PLOT POSITION RELATIVE TO THE MAGNETIC NORTH POLE? (COMPASS)

.526

103

93

11.7

15.9

.14

.34

61.2

68.2

34.4

27

47.5

204

.84*

40

75

WHAT IS THE TERM IN GOLF REFERRING TO A SCORE OF ONE UNDER PAR ON A PARTICULAR HOLE? (BIRDIE)

.523

81

74

12.2

17.6

.16

.32

60.2

66.9

38.7

25

49.9

158

.54*

41

77

WHICH GAME USES A RUBBER BALL AND LITTLE METAL PIECES? (JACKS)

.521

75

69

9.8

22.4

.15

.33

69.2

84.0

16.4

21

52.7

145

.70*

42

47

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A DRIED PLUM? (PRUNE)b

.517

76

71

7.7

10.7

.27

.21

65.2

79.3

38.3

40

58.5

147

.61*

43

40

IN WHICH SPORT DOES A RIDER ON HORSEBACK HIT A BALL WITH HIS MALLET? (POLO)b

.510

106

102

9.8

17.4

.20

.29

69.5

85.7

28.7

42

55.7

212

.71*

44

78

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LEGENDARY ONE-EYED GIANT IN GREEK MYTHOLOGY? (CYCLOPS)

.507

107

104

9.1

13.1

.11

.38

74.6

85.0

26.0

23

53.9

215

.71*

45

36

IN WHAT PARK IS “OLD FAITHFUL” LOCATED? (YELLOWSTONE)b

.491

105

109

9.7

13.5

.17

.34

62.0

76.8

20.0

37

48.0

220

.75*

46

51

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE POKER HAND IN WHICH ALL OF THE CARDS ARE OF THE SAME SUIT? (FLUSH)b

.486

68

72

14.6

16.1

.25

.26

54.6

64.8

34.8

35

53.9

141

.39*

47

90

IN WHICH SPORT IS THE STANLEY CUP AWARDED? (HOCKEY)

.481

103

111

5.8

9.2

.42

.10

69.7

87.7

49.0

89

63.8

216

.72*

48

89

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CHAPEL WHOSE CEILING WAS PAINTED BY MICHELANGELO? (SISTINE)

.475

67

74

12.7

17.7

.16

.37

73.2

83.6

41.5

22

53.4

142

.67*

49

241

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS BAGHDAD THE CAPITAL? (IRAQ)a

.468

59

67

9.8

12.6

.40

.13

60.3

68.5

51.9

50

63.3

128

.58*

50

76

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LIQUID PORTION OF WHOLE BLOOD? (PLASMA)

.468

94

107

10.3

12.7

.17

.36

47.4

53.9

29.2

34

38.0

206

.56*

51

55

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CITY IN ITALY THAT IS KNOWN FOR ITS CANALS? (VENICE)b

.459

67

79

9.3

10.5

.26

.28

65.4

82.0

36.1

38

54.3

148

.72*

52

21

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SPEAR LIKE OBJECT THAT IS THROWN DURING A TRACK MEET? (JAVELIN)b

.452

71

86

10.5

19.4

.29

.25

68.0

85.6

40.8

46

59.0

158

.39*

53

23

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO RODE HORSEBACK IN 1775 TO WARN THAT THE BRITISH WERE COMING? (REVERE)b

.443

66

83

13.3

14.8

.12

.44

72.1

85.2

24.1

18

55.1

150

.67*

54

32

WHO WAS THE EGYPTIAN QUEEN WHO JOINED FORCES WITH MARK ANTONY OF ROME? (CLEOPATRA)b

.443

93

117

11.0

19.4

.13

.43

57.3

70.4

12.3

27

39.1

215

.73*

55

67

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO ASSASSINATED ABRAHAM LINCOLN? (BOOTH)b

.438

63

81

10.5

15.8

.20

.36

68.8

90.0

23.5

29

58.9

144

.65*

56

20

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO SHOWED THAT LIGHTNING IS ELECTRIC? (FRANKLIN)b

.437

93

120

11.6

11.5

.34

.22

64.7

75.5

51.0

73

57.9

217

.67*

57

28

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FAMOUS MAGICIAN AND ESCAPE ARTIST WHO DIED OF APPENDICITIS? (HOUDINI)b

.436

95

123

12.8

16.9

.06

.50

52.5

58.7

10.7

14

37.3

225

.73*

58

83

WHAT IS THE NAME OF DEER MEAT? (VENISON)b

.432

64

84

10.4

11.5

.30

.27

65.8

88.6

32.5

44

54.0

149

.59*

59

45

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LARGE HAIRY SPIDER THAT LIVES NEAR BANANAS? (TARANTULA)b

.429

63

84

13.8

15.9

.14

.43

42.8

48.8

24.7

21

36.5

149

.62*

60

82

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE OCEAN THAT IS LOCATED BETWEEN AFRICA AND AUSTRALIA? (INDIAN)b

.427

90

121

12.9

15.8

.47

.10

52.0

67.4

38.1

99

57.6

216

.62*

61

27

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SINGER WHO RECORDED “HEARTBREAK HOTEL” AND “ALL SHOOK UP”? (PRESLEY)b

.424

61

83

11.5

12.4

.21

.37

72.5

80.9

55.3

30

52.5

146

.77*

62

81

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CRIME IN WHICH A PERSON PURPOSELY BETRAYS HIS COUNTRY? (TREASON)b

.418

61

85

12.0

21.6

.20

.38

63.9

83.5

22.7

29

56.3

148

.62*

63

109

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FIRST ARTIFICIAL SATELLITE PUT IN ORBIT BY RUSSIA IN 1957? (SPUTNIK)

.417

58

81

9.9

19.8

.08

.50

68.3

79.2

11.1

11

46.0

140

.62*

64

127

WHAT BRAND OF CIGARETTE WAS FIRST TO HAVE THE FLIP-TOP BOX? (MARLBORO)

.399

55

83

10.8

10.0

.32

.28

27.8

26.7

29.3

44

31.8

140

.32*

65

29

WHAT KIND OF METAL IS ASSOCIATED WITH A 50TH WEDDING ANNIVERSARY? (GOLD)b

.396

57

87

8.5

11.4

.38

.23

48.0

62.2

33.0

54

45.7

144

.73*

66

39

WHICH TYPE OF SNAKE DO ASIAN SNAKE-CHARMERS USE? (COBRA)b

.391

54

84

9.7

10.3

.28

.33

60.0

74.8

39.5

39

40.9

140

.61*

67

42

WHAT IS THE ONLY LIQUID METAL AT ROOM TEMPERATURE? (MERCURY)b

.388

83

131

9.5

20.2

.21

.41

49.6

66.6

17.6

44

40.9

220

.65*

68

56

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE DESERT PEOPLE WHO WANDER INSTEAD OF LIVING IN ONE PLACE? (NOMADS)b

.352

74

136

12.1

21.7

.29

.36

47.4

69.1

20.7

60

36.1

216

.72*

69

121

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF NEW YORK? (ALBANY)

.331

49

99

12.8

16.6

.51

.16

68.2

89.0

54.6

75

66.1

153

.54*

70

101

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ORGAN THAT PRODUCES INSULIN? (PANCREAS)b

.327

49

101

13.8

21.1

.46

.21

54.1

78.1

37.0

69

49.5

151

.63*

71

140

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE COLLAR BONE? (CLAVICLE)

.324

70

146

8.6

13.7

.22

.46

57.4

78.6

25.7

47

39.6

222

.56*

72

104

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE EXTINCT REPTILES KNOWN AS “TERRIBLE LIZARDS”? (DINOSAURS)b

.315

63

137

11.2

15.1

.18

.51

32.5

42.8

14.0

35

28.7

207

.76*

73

54

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF RUSSIA? (MOSCOW)b

.309

64

143

7.6

14.3

.09

.60

66.7

79.7

20.4

18

41.7

210

.77*

74

62

WHICH BREED OF CAT HAS BLUE EYES? (SIAMESE)b

.308

66

148

9.4

8.2

.24

.45

48.5

59.1

34.8

51

33.3

217

.68*

75

102

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SECOND U.S. PRESIDENT? (ADAMS)b

.303

63

145

10.0

12.7

.41

.29

46.5

61.0

35.8

85

54.6

215

.43*

76

152

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CONSTELLATION THAT LOOKS LIKE A FLYING HORSE? (PEGASUS)

.300

64

149

9.6

12.5

.22

.48

47.0

64.6

22.7

46

33.7

216

.71*

77

106

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE KIND OF CAT THAT SPOKE TO ALICE IN THE STORY “ALICE’S ADVENTURES IN WONDERLAND”? (CHESHIRE)b

.300

63

147

10.4

16.8

.30

.40

51.3

84.9

18.3

64

47.3

213

.71*

78

64

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO PROPOSED THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY? (EINSTEIN)b

.297

68

161

9.9

11.8

.21

.49

53.8

65.3

37.2

47

43.3

232

.81*

79

58

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE WOMAN WHO SUPPOSEDLY DESIGNED AND SEWED THE FIRST AMERICAN FLAG? (ROSS)b

.286

62

155

8.0

14.0

.24

.48

60.9

87.6

28.5

51

43.0

225

.68*

80

124

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST SIGNER OF THE “DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE”? (HANCOCK)

.285

65

163

11.7

12.2

.44

.27

49.5

64.1

40.1

101

49.0

233

.68*

81

187

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF KING ARTHUR’S SWORD? (EXCALIBUR)

.285

41

103

10.0

9.3

.12

.60

71.1

92.1

20.4

17

42.8

145

.86*

82

61

WHAT IS THE WORD THAT MEANS A NAUTICAL MILE PER HOUR? (KNOT)b

.277

39

102

11.8

17.8

.27

.45

51.6

69.0

33.7

38

39.5

142

.75*

83

70

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR THE ASTRONOMICAL BODIES THAT ENTER THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE? (METEORS)b

.271

54

145

14.8

16.4

.43

.30

46.6

48.7

45.3

86

45.7

205

.58*

84

87

WHAT IS THE LONGEST RIVER IN SOUTH AMERICA? (AMAZON)b

.267

40

110

9.8

9.3

.29

.44

57.9

79.9

38.0

44

45.3

152

.75*

85

86

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE AUTOMOBILE INSTRUMENT THAT MEASURES MILEAGE? (ODOMETER)b

.258

54

155

13.2

16.2

.39

.35

51.1

77.6

33.5

81

55.5

213

.59*

86

145

WHAT ITALIAN CITY WAS DESTROYED WHEN MOUNT VESUVIUS ERUPTED IN 79 A.D.? (POMPEII)

.258

41

118

9.9

12.9

.26

.48

53.9

87.0

20.8

41

37.0

159

.70*

87

115

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF BATMAN’S SECRET IDENTITY IN THE BATMAN COMICS? (WAYNE)b

.252

35

104

11.0

19.0

.18

.57

68.0

93.9

31.7

25

54.5

141

.78*

88

66

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MYTHICAL GIANT LUMBERJACK? (BUNYAN)b

.245

51

157

14.1

13.1

.23

.53

58.2

88.9

24.8

47

40.6

212

.72*

89

199

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE COMPANY THAT PRODUCES “BABY RUTH” CANDY BARS? (NESTLE)

.245

34

105

10.7

10.2

.39

.37

42.8

45.1

41.3

54

44.0

140

.59*

90

103

WHAT IS THE NAME OF SOCRATES’ MOST FAMOUS STUDENT? (PLATO)b

.239

34

108

14.7

12.0

.35

.42

46.3

55.2

40.0

49

38.9

142

.57*

91

111

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE THREE-LEAF CLOVER THAT IS THE EMBLEM OF IRELAND? (SHAMROCK)b

.239

33

105

10.9

16.1

.25

.51

55.9

84.4

28.1

34

47.4

139

.82*

92

110

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS BUENOS AIRES THE CAPITAL? (ARGENTINA)b

.204

44

172

10.1

12.6

.50

.29

43.4

70.3

32.6

109

40.4

219

.66*

93

60

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTRESS WHO RECEIVED THE BEST ACTRESS AWARD FOR THE MOVIE “MARY POPPINS”? (ANDREWS)b

.203

43

169

11.5

14.3

.14

.66

58.9

87.3

18.2

30

39.3

218

.73*

94

126

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MOUNTAIN RANGE IN WHICH MOUNT EVEREST IS LOCATED? (HIMALAYAS)b

.198

41

166

13.8

14.3

.34

.46

42.6

64.4

30.0

71

43.4

213

.68*

95

80

WHAT IS THE UNIT OF SOUND INTENSITY? (DECIBEL)b

.190

40

171

8.8

14.2

.51

.30

46.1

73.1

36.1

108

41.0

218

.70*

96

207

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PROJECT WHICH DEVELOPED THE ATOMIC BOMB DURING WORLD WAR II? (MANHATTAN)

.188

27

117

11.5

16.9

.14

.67

57.5

86.8

18.0

20

42.3

144

.71*

97

99

WHAT IS THE UNIT OF ELECTRICAL POWER THAT REFERS TO A CURRENT OF ONE AMPERE AT ONE VOLT? (WATT)b

.187

26

113

12.6

15.6

.32

.49

41.6

59.7

31.1

45

37.0

140

.61*

98

132

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF THE BOOK “1984”? (ORWELL)b

.185

37

163

12.9

13.0

.15

.67

66.0

90.5

34.7

29

34.5

204

.65*

99

69

IN WHICH GAME ARE MEN CROWNED? (CHECKERS)b

.176

25

117

12.9

17.6

.32

.50

39.6

64.0

26.4

46

33.9

143

.71*

100

97

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO ASSASSINATED PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY? (OSWALD)b

.172

25

120

14.8

19.1

.26

.57

55.0

83.9

35.4

37

52.7

147

.47*

101

137

WHAT IS THE NAME OF BATMAN’S BUTLER? (ALFRED)b

.163

23

118

11.4

13.4

.31

.52

51.8

93.0

30.2

44

50.6

142

.74*

102

117

WHICH COUNTRY WAS THE FIRST TO USE GUNPOWDER? (CHINA)b

.160

23

121

8.8

11.2

.53

.31

38.9

73.5

28.5

77

38.6

144

.69*

103

14

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN AIRPLANE WITHOUT AN ENGINE? (GLIDER)b

.157

30

161

11.8

13.7

.29

.55

33.9

55.8

22.2

56

29.1

196

.58*

104

178

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE NORTH STAR? (POLARIS)

.156

32

173

6.5

10.6

.21

.63

44.5

81.8

16.6

43

38.1

214

.71*

105

159

WHAT IS THE ONLY WORD THAT THE RAVEN SAYS IN EDGAR ALLEN POE’S POEM “THE RAVEN”? (NEVERMORE)

.155

24

131

11.2

17.2

.37

.48

38.8

91.3

16.7

57

35.6

156

.66*

106

46

FOR WHICH COUNTRY IS THE YEN THE MONETARY UNIT? (JAPAN)b

.152

33

184

7.1

9.1

.62

.23

54.0

75.5

48.7

134

45.0

222

.70*

107

139

IN WHAT EUROPEAN CITY IS THE PARTHENON LOCATED? (ATHENS)b

.150

25

142

8.4

13.0

.40

.45

51.2

76.8

41.7

67

40.3

169

.68*

108

113

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FURRY ANIMAL THAT ATTACKS COBRA SNAKES? (MONGOOSE)b

.149

20

114

8.0

16.4

.36

.49

46.4

89.7

28.3

48

33.3

136

.61*

109

166

FOR WHICH COUNTRY IS THE RUPEE THE MONETARY UNIT? (INDIA)

.147

31

180

8.6

13.3

.27

.58

35.7

71.1

16.8

58

24.5

216

.75*

110

154

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO FIRST STUDIED GENETIC INHERITANCE IN PLANTS? (MENDEL)

.144

30

179

9.9

11.2

.21

.65

49.5

85.2

24.6

43

29.2

217

.63*

111

107

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WROTE THE “STAR SPANGLED BANNER”? (KEY)b

.141

20

122

8.9

14.8

.22

.64

46.2

85.0

21.1

31

42.9

141

.77*

112

112

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PALACE IN LONDON IN WHICH THE MONARCH OF ENGLAND RESIDES? (BUCKINGHAM)b

.141

29

177

16.0

19.4

.20

.66

46.0

72.9

26.9

41

32.9

211

.62*

113

125

IN WHICH GAME ARE THE STANDARD PIECES OF STAUNTON DESIGN? (CHESS)b

.138

21

131

14.2

16.1

.14

.72

20.0

30.5

10.0

22

21.4

154

.53*

114

206

WHAT ARE PEOPLE WHO MAKE MAPS CALLED? (CARTOGRAPHERS)

.138

29

181

9.3

12.4

.41

.45

34.1

73.2

20.8

86

32.0

216

.61*

115

94

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE ZEPPELIN THAT EXPLODED IN LAKEHURST N.J. IN 1937? (HINDENBURG)b

.134

29

188

20.2

12.5

.13

.74

40.6

68.8

11.3

28

24.0

223

.64*

116

167

WHAT IS THE PALACE BUILT IN FRANCE BY KING LOUIS XIV? (VERSAILLES)

.128

17

116

10.1

13.1

.16

.71

40.7

71.1

16.2

21

29.4

134

.38*

117

114

IN WHICH CITY IS THE U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY LOCATED? (ANNAPOLIS)b

.127

27

185

11.3

20.4

.37

.50

39.0

75.6

26.4

79

37.8

216

.61*

118

72

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LIGHTEST WOOD KNOWN? (BALSA)b

.125

26

182

9.0

11.9

.45

.43

32.8

48.3

28.5

93

28.5

216

.66*

119

31

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOXER WHO LATER BECAME KNOWN AS MUHAMMAD ALI? (CLAY)b

.117

17

128

10.6

13.1

.25

.63

45.1

94.9

21.6

36

46.1

146

.69*

120

119

WHAT ISLAND IS THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD EXCLUDING AUSTRALIA? (GREENLAND)b

.111

16

128

15.4

18.7

.60

.28

34.3

51.3

31.1

87

41.0

144

.55*

121

71

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SMALL JAPANESE STOVE USED FOR OUTDOOR COOKING? (HIBACHI)b

.110

16

129

11.9

10.3

.32

.57

38.2

60.3

30.5

46

31.8

146

.65*

122

105

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE WOMAN WHO BEGAN THE PROFESSION OF NURSING? (NIGHTINGALE)b

.108

16

132

13.4

10.6

.14

.75

41.9

66.9

22.8

21

26.9

148

.66*

123

175

WHO WAS THE LEADER OF THE ARGONAUTS? (JASON)

.107

15

125

5.0

11.6

.07

.82

52.2

81.6

8.2

10

23.5

141

.69*

124

214

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ARTIST WHO PAINTED “GUERNICA”? (PICASSO)

.107

21

176

11.5

11.7

.16

.73

30.8

56.6

13.8

32

20.8

203

.74*

125

177

IN WHAT ANCIENT CITY WERE THE “HANGING GARDENS” LOCATED? (BABYLON)

.103

14

122

16.8

13.8

.38

.51

36.0

67.9

27.4

52

30.0

136

.60*

126

200

WHAT ARE PEOPLE CALLED WHO EXPLORE CAVES? (SPELUNKERS)

.100

21

188

14.7

12.6

.44

.45

27.7

61.2

20.1

93

30.8

214

.53*

127

168

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CAPTAIN OF THE PEQUOD IN THE BOOK “MOBY DICK”? (AHAB)

.097

20

187

11.7

12.0

.19

.71

41.3

90.9

16.6

40

33.4

212

.59*

128

258

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF KENTUCKY? (FRANKFORT)

.095

19

182

18.6

14.2

.34

.57

48.8

78.4

40.6

68

44.3

205

.56*

129

85

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN ILLEGAL MOVE BY A BASEBALL PITCHER THAT RESULTS IN ALL RUNNERS ADVANCING ONE BASE? (BALK)b

.093

14

136

10.0

22.1

.45

.45

53.9

95.7

45.3

68

51.7

152

.51*

130

129

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AMERICAN WHO STARRED IN THE 1936 OLYMPICS? (OWENS)b

.093

14

136

12.1

11.6

.17

.74

31.2

58.6

15.8

25

22.9

149

.59*

131

174

THE DEEPEST PART OF THE OCEAN IS LOCATED AT WHICH TRENCH? (MARIANA)

.093

19

185

11.2

13.2

.29

.61

29.4

70.1

16.6

60

26.4

208

.62*

132

169

WHICH SPORT USES THE TERMS “STONES” AND “BROOMS”? (CURLING)

.092

13

128

19.3

14.7

.48

.43

37.3

74.6

30.0

67

36.8

142

.61*

133

182

WHAT IS THE PROPER NAME FOR A BADMINTON BIRD? (SHUTTLECOCK)

.091

20

200

9.8

10.0

.49

.42

49.6

88.5

42.4

108

37.1

225

.72*

134

128

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “OLIVER TWIST”? (DICKENS)b

.090

20

203

9.2

14.0

20

.71

43.2

87.5

23.0

44

35.1

229

.64*

135

196

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF DELAWARE? (DOVER)

.090

19

193

9.9

19.4

.15

.76

39.8

74.6

19.2

32

36.8

216

.60*

136

120

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO INVENTED THE PHONOGRAPH? (EDISON)b

.086

17

180

15.8

9.5

.24

.68

43.8

63.2

36.8

47

29.8

200

.76*

137

48

IN WHICH TYPE OF SKI RACE DOES THE DOWNHILL SKIER MAKE SHARP TURNS AROUND POLES? (SLALOM)b

.086

19

202

14.3

19.0

.29

.62

30.4

68.3

19.3

65

33.6

226

.55*

138

153

IN WHICH CITY IS HEATHROW AIRPORT LOCATED? (LONDON)b

.083

12

133

8.1

14.6

.26

.66

31.4

90.8

12.6

38

24.2

145

.50*

139

235

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF JAMAICA? (KINGSTON)

.081

12

137

10.5

13.3

.18

.74

34.1

77.5

14.7

27

30.5

150

.49*

140

44

WHICH PLANET WAS THE LAST TO BE DISCOVERED? (NEPTUNE)b

.080

17

195

18.4

7.5

.77

.15

51.9

47.6

52.3

164

50.5

217

.76*

141

185

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “THE MURDERS IN THE RUE MORGUE”? (POE)

.080

11

127

8.5

13.6

.11

.81

28.3

55.5

8.5

15

22.7

141

.82*

142

205

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SHIP ON WHICH CHARLES DARWIN MADE HIS SCIENTIFIC VOYAGE? (BEAGLE)

.079

11

129

10.2

15.3

.16

.76

38.3

98.1

8.5

22

28.1

142

.54*

143

213

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF CHILE? (SANTIAGO)

.077

11

131

15.3

11.6

.19

.73

35.2

70.0

21.0

27

33.8

143

.41*

144

100

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “THE OLD MAN AND THE SEA”? (HEMINGWAY)b

.077

16

193

8.9

12.6

.11

.81

39.3

75.4

14.1

23

22.5

213

.73*

145

147

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WROTE “CANTERBURY TALES”? (CHAUCER)b

.076

11

134

10.1

15.5

.23

.69

37.0

93.2

18.8

34

33.6

148

.60*

146

262

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FOUNTAIN IN ROME INTO WHICH COINS ARE THROWN FOR GOOD LUCK? (TREVI)

.071

14

183

24.7

12.2

.32

.60

28.9

86.6

16.3

64

34.1

205

.52*

147

162

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WAS PRESIDENT DIRECTLY AFTER JAMES MADISON? (MONROE)b

.068

15

205

11.7

14.7

.40

.53

29.3

64.3

23.3

88

35.3

221

.53*

148

143

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ASTRONOMER WHO PUBLISHED IN 1543 HIS THEORY THAT THE EARTH REVOLVES AROUND THE SUN? (COPERNICUS)b

.067

9

126

15.0

16.8

.50

.44

50.5

63.3

48.8

67

40.2

139

.69*

149

242

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE CRIMINAL WHO WAS KNOWN AS “SCARFACE”? (CAPONE)

.066

14

199

9.9

14.3

.38

.56

57.7

60.6

57.3

80

50.1

220

.78*

150

12

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LONE RANGER’S INDIAN SIDEKICK? (TONTO)b

.061

13

200

7.5

11.6

.17

.77

25.3

71.8

8.9

37

22.3

219

.52*

151

170

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF DENMARK? (COPENHAGEN)b

.060

13

204

23.4

14.4

.18

.76

29.0

52.1

21.3

39

27.2

221

.51*

152

96

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WAS THE RADIO BROADCASTER FOR THE “WAR OF THE WORLDS”? (WELLES)b

.059

12

190

9.5

20.7

.13

.81

32.9

79.9

11.3

26

24.7

209

.44*

153

203

IN WHICH CITY IS MICHELANGELO’S STATUE OF DAVID LOCATED? (FLORENCE)

.058

8

129

14.5

10.0

.64

.30

39.3

60.0

37.4

88

43.0

138

.65*

154

146

WHAT WAS FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT’S PROFESSION? (ARCHITECT)b

.058

12

196

7.8

11.1

.45

.49

33.7

91.7

26.3

94

25.9

214

.65*

155

135

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS NAIROBI THE CAPITAL? (KENYA)b

.053

7

126

6.6

14.6

.34

.61

27.9

79.1

19.9

45

26.3

134

.53*

156

134

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE HILLBILLY FAMILY THAT HAD A FAMOUS FEUD WITH THE MCCOY FAMILY? (HATFIELD)b

.052

11

199

12.7

16.0

.22

.73

30.8

81.8

18.6

46

27.7

215

.69*

157

156

WHAT KIND OF POISON DID SOCRATES TAKE AS HIS EXECUTION? (HEMLOCK)b

.052

11

200

7.5

13.8

.27

.67

26.7

87.8

15.1

58

23.3

216

.63*

158

74

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST PERSON TO COMPLETE A SOLO FLIGHT ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN? (LINDBERGH)b

.052

11

201

15.6

14.7

.38

.57

43.1

81.8

37.8

80

36.1

219

.66*

159

38

ANDY GRIFFITH WAS THE SHERIFF OF WHAT TOWN ON TELEVISION’S “ANDY GRIFFITH SHOW”? (MAYBERRY)b

.052

11

202

9.7

13.6

.15

.80

34.3

94.5

12.9

31

28.3

220

.64*

160

142

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ROMAN EMPEROR WHO FIDDLED WHILE ROME BURNED? (NERO)b

.052

11

202

10.6

14.8

.25

.70

33.8

72.3

25.8

53

23.4

220

.69*

161

231

WHAT IS THE CITY IN WHICH THE BASEBALL HALL OF FAME IS LOCATED? (COOPERSTOWN)

.051

7

130

9.8

17.2

.41

.54

29.7

67.9

25.0

56

43.7

137

.51*

162

98

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE UNIT OF MEASURE THAT REFERS TO A SIX-FOOT DEPTH OF WATER? (FATHOM)b

.051

11

206

19.2

17.0

.32

.63

34.9

70.9

29.3

70

29.8

221

.49*

163

108

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SCIENTIST WHO DISCOVERED RADIUM? (CURIE)b

.046

9

186

8.9

11.4

.19

.76

19.5

65.0

8.7

38

19.9

201

.74*

164

149

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “BRAVE NEW WORLD”? (HUXLEY)b

.045

7

149

10.9

14.2

.19

.77

32.9

98.6

17.1

29

32.3

157

.67*

165

164

IN ADDITION TO THE KENTUCKY DERBY AND THE BELMONT STAKES WHAT HORSE RACE COMPRISES THE TRIPLE CROWN? (PREAKNESS)b

.044

10

218

21.0

21.9

.16

.80

33.4

96.5

15.9

36

26.2

233

.66*

166

204

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE CRIMINAL WHO WAS KILLED BY FBI AGENTS OUTSIDE OF A CHICAGO MOVIE THEATER? (DILLINGER)

.044

9

197

17.4

20.6

.20

.76

31.8

81.1

20.9

41

22.4

211

.68*

167

95

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SINGER WHO POPULARIZED A DANCE KNOWN AS THE “TWIST”? (CHECKER)b

.041

6

139

21.4

12.8

.30

.66

31.4

63.5

27.0

44

32.5

146

.49*

168

221

OVER WHICH RIVER IS THE GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE? (HUDSON)

.041

6

141

32.2

14.1

.37

.59

32.5

73.3

27.9

54

33.9

148

.39*

169

189

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO INVENTED DYNAMITE? (NOBEL)b

.040

6

143

7.4

11.3

.26

.70

24.6

95.0

13.8

39

25.8

149

.54*

170

228

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CHINESE RELIGION FOUNDED BY LAO TSE? (TAOISM)

.040

8

192

13.0

13.0

.42

.54

37.9

56.3

36.1

84

28.6

207

.74*

171

84

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE COMMANDER WHO LOST THE BATTLE OF THE LITTLE BIGHORN RIVER? (CUSTER)b

.038

8

201

11.0

12.5

.20

.77

31.9

76.3

23.2

41

26.5

212

.66*

172

155

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT USED AT SEA TO PLOT POSITION BY THE STARS? (SEXTANT)b

.038

5

127

14.9

19.4

.54

.42

32.3

62.2

30.2

71

36.8

134

.58*

173

161

WHO WAS THE MOST FAMOUS GREEK DOCTOR? (HIPPOCRATES)b

.037

5

131

16.2

15.3

.18

.79

27.1

83.0

15.5

24

23.3

139

.68*

174

165

IN WHICH CITY DOES THE COTTON BOWL TAKE PLACE? (DALLAS)b

.037

5

131

10.7

14.3

.36

.60

23.8

16.0

24.6

49

33.7

138

.56*

175

192

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE THE SHERLOCK HOLMES STORIES? (DOYLE)

.036

8

212

17.0

13.4

.18

.79

30.1

90.6

17.6

39

34.0

226

.59*

176

225

FOR WHICH COUNTRY IS THE DRACHMA THE MONETARY UNIT? (GREECE)

.036

5

135

19.6

15.4

.31

.66

24.7

88.0

17.3

43

20.9

141

.27

177

148

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MANSION IN VIRGINIA THAT WAS THOMAS JEFFERSON’S HOME? (MONTICELLO)b

.035

7

191

11.9

16.9

.15

.81

29.5

89.3

15.5

30

26.7

205

.51*

178

236

WHAT IS THE LONGEST RIVER IN ASIA? (YANGTZE)

.035

7

191

17.3

10.0

.37

.59

33.4

32.1

33.5

74

32.2

202

.71*

179

183

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO RECEIVED THE BEST ACTOR AWARD FOR THE MOVIE “ON THE WATERFRONT”? (BRANDO)b

.034

5

143

11.3

7.3

.08

.89

31.7

100.0

3.3

12

24.7

151

-.06

180

91

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MALE STAR OF THE MOVIE “CASABLANCA”? (BOGART)b

.034

5

144

9.6

18.1

.27

.70

26.8

86.0

19.4

40

33.4

149

.55*

181

150

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS BUDAPEST THE CAPITAL? (HUNGARY)b

.033

7

205

9.9

11.9

.43

.54

28.9

70.9

25.7

91

26.0

215

.64*

182

191

WHO IS KNOWN AS “THE FATHER OF GEOMETRY”? (EUCLID)b

.033

5

148

20.7

13.2

.31

.66

25.5

70.0

20.7

47

30.4

153

.41*

183

193

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE HUSBAND-WIFE SPIES WHO WERE ELECTROCUTED IN 1951 FOR PASSING ATOMIC SECRETS TO RUSSIA? (ROSENBERG)

.031

4

126

29.0

14.9

.17

.80

21.7

56.3

15.5

22

20.6

132

.42*

184

261

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE COMPOSER WHO WROTE THE OPERA “DON GIOVANNI”? (MOZART)

.030

4

128

10.1

12.1

.21

.76

18.3

13.8

18.9

28

18.5

132

.60*

185

190

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF THE JAMES BOND NOVELS? (FLEMING)b

.030

7

225

11.4

9.6

.16

.81

19.0

80.7

7.6

38

29.1

234

.45*

186

122

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF BUFFALO BILL? (CODY)b

.030

6

196

14.2

10.2

.27

.70

29.0

79.8

23.5

55

26.0

207

.62*

187

136

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE UNDER THE PSEUDONYM OF MARK TWAIN? (CLEMENS)b

.029

6

201

15.2

11.8

.16

.81

21.6

61.0

14.6

34

24.1

214

.68*

188

233

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ISLAND ON WHICH NAPOLEON WAS BORN? (CORSICA)

.029

4

136

38.3

13.5

.28

.69

25.0

72.5

20.1

39

27.4

141

.40*

189

157

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE DOCTOR WHO FIRST DEVELOPED A VACCINE AGAINST POLIO? (SALK)b

.028

4

137

16.1

19.8

.16

.82

26.2

80.0

16.4

22

29.3

143

.68*

190

181

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO BEGAN THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY? (LUTHER)b

.028

4

138

18.7

9.9

.53

.44

54.1

75.0

53.0

75

42.1

142

.64*

191

211

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF FINLAND? (HELSINKI)

.026

4

149

14.0

10.4

.17

.80

19.2

67.3

11.8

26

28.4

154

.53*

192

188

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE APOLLO LUNAR MODULE THAT LANDED THE FIRST MAN ON THE MOON? (EAGLE)b

.025

5

193

30.9

16.9

.37

.61

28.9

38.4

28.2

73

39.0

241

.67*

193

264

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE COSMONAUT WHO WAS THE FIRST PERSON TO ORBIT AROUND THE EARTH? (GAGARIN)

.024

5

207

10.9

14.6

.28

.69

31.0

70.0

27.8

60

26.2

217

.46*

194

243

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF ROY ROGER’S DOG? (BULLET)

.021

3

138

8.6

8.1

.23

.74

7.1

3.3

7.5

33

21.9

141

.48*

195

171

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF ALEXANDER GRAHAM BELL’S ASSISTANT? (WATSON)b

.021

3

139

12.5

13.7

.13

.85

22.6

26.7

21.9

19

23.1

146

.50*

196

176

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE COMPOSER OF THE “MAPLE LEAF RAG”? (JOPLIN)b

.020

4

196

9.8

9.5

.15

.83

14.3

75.0

6.2

30

16.7

207

.75*

197

216

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE PLAYWRIGHT WHO WROTE “A STREETCAR NAMED DESIRE”? (WILLIAMS)

.020

4

197

26.9

13.1

.13

.85

18.4

87.5

8.1

27

20.1

205

.77*

198

158

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF “LITTLE WOMEN”? (ALCOTT)b

.020

4

198

6.4

11.4

.17

.81

20.0

72.5

13.9

34

25.3

205

.76*

199

209

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST PERSON TO CLIMB MOUNT EVEREST? (HILLARY)

.020

3

149

8.4

9.9

.13

.85

22.8

96.7

11.8

20

25.5

155

.62*

200

68

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PLAYED RHETT BUTLER IN “GONE WITH THE WIND”? (GABLE)b

.020

4

199

22.7

16.0

.14

.84

17.0

68.8

9.6

28

23.9

208

.32

201

254

IN WHICH COUNTRY IS ANGEL FALLS LOCATED? (VENEZUELA)

.020

4

199

17.2

12.7

.39

.59

27.4

76.3

25.0

80

24.7

206

.66*

202

218

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF CANADA? (OTTAWA)

.019

4

207

18.1

11.8

.73

.25

41.5

65.0

40.9

154

44.8

215

.61*

203

286

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE TWENTY-FIRST U.S. PRESIDENT? (ARTHUR)

.019

4

208

26.4

16.8

.49

.49

23.4

93.8

20.7

104

32.0

218

.53*

204

274

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE GOLDFISH IN THE STORY OF PINOCCHIO? (CLEO)

.019

4

212

16.0

10.9

.24

.74

15.8

90.0

10.0

52

30.1

221

.45*

205

282

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE VILLAINOUS PEOPLE WHO LIVED UNDERGROUND IN H. G. WELLS’S BOOK “THE TIME MACHINE”? (MORLOCKS)

.018

4

219

19.5

16.4

.17

.81

13.5

75.0

7.1

38

19.6

228

.52*

206

224

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE CHARACTER PORTRAYED BY ROBERT STACK ON THE TELEVISION SHOW “THE UNTOUCHABLES”? (NESS)

.015

3

195

11.4

14.9

.12

.86

10.8

63.3

4.2

24

24.0

203

.57*

207

284

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF AUSTRALIA? (CANBERRA)

.015

3

196

15.5

7.7

.63

.35

70.3

100.0

69.6

126

52.2

204

.62*

208

259

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ARTIST WHO PAINTED “THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY”? (DALI)

.015

2

134

16.0

13.7

.21

.77

14.3

57.5

11.3

29

19.3

140

.48*

209

144

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO INVENTED THE TELEGRAPH? (MORSE)b

.014

3

210

9.1

12.0

.41

.58

41.8

83.3

40.3

87

35.8

218

.79*

210

160

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE RIVER ON WHICH BONN IS LOCATED? (RHINE)b

.014

3

210

17.5

12.1

.16

.83

12.9

43.3

10.2

34

17.5

219

.69*

211

247

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SUBSTANCE DERIVED FROM A WHALE THAT IS USED TO MAKE PERFUME? (AMBERGRIS)

.014

2

141

41.6

12.9

.45

.54

33.8

55.0

33.1

64

28.8

143

.73*

212

133

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SUBMARINE IN JULES VERNE’S “20,000 LEAGUES BENEATH THE SEA”? (NAUTILUS)b

.014

2

143

8.4

11.0

.12

.86

15.7

100.0

6.3

18

23.8

146

.76*

213

223

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE CLOWN ON THE “HOWDY DOODY” TELEVISION SHOW? (CLARABELL)

.014

2

143

24.2

10.0

.18

.81

18.5

45.0

16.5

26

25.3

147

.89*

214

226

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF DAGWOOD’S BOSS IN THE COMIC STRIP “BLONDIE”? (DITHERS)

.010

2

190

9.3

10.9

.10

.89

15.4

92.5

7.7

20

20.2

198

.29

215

184

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MOVIE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED SPARTACUS? (DOUGLAS)b

.010

2

192

7.6

12.0

.27

.72

31.5

45.0

31.0

52

31.3

202

.67*

216

230

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE WOMAN WHO FOUNDED THE AMERICAN RED CROSS? (BARTON)

.010

2

198

14.1

15.6

.27

.73

18.0

87.5

15.4

53

26.4

206

.55*

217

292

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE UNION GENERAL WHO DEFEATED THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AT THE CIVIL WAR BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG? (MEADE)

.010

2

201

16.6

14.7

.44

.55

35.8

60.0

35.3

89

35.5

209

.55*

218

198

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE AVENUE THAT IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS ATLANTIC AVENUE IN THE GAME OF MONOPOLY? (VENTNOR)b

.010

2

202

31.8

16.4

.38

.61

23.1

75.0

21.7

78

32.0

213

.63*

219

92

WHICH GAME USES A DOUBLING CUBE? (BACKGAMMON)b

.010

2

208

26.7

15.7

.26

.73

23.6

25.0

23.5

55

27.6

213

.72*

220

296

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO SUPPOSEDLY KILLED JESSE JAMES? (FORD)

.009

2

215

9.4

16.6

.19

.80

13.2

47.5

11.5

42

25.2

222

.53*

221

245

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE EUROPEAN AUTHOR WHO WROTE “THE TRIAL”? (KAFKA)

.008

1

127

70.8

11.4

.13

.87

2.8

0.0

3.0

16

19.9

129

.27

222

255

THE GENERAL NAMED HANNIBAL WAS FROM WHAT CITY? (CARTHAGE)

.007

1

137

11.5

14.9

.28

.71

13.4

40.0

12.7

39

24.7

143

.43*

223

237

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BRITISH ADMIRAL WHO WON THE BATTLE OF TRAFALGAR? (NELSON)

.007

1

138

6.9

13.4

.12

.88

8.6

100.0

2.9

16

18.4

141

-.12

224

265

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE INDIAN COLLEGE IN PENNSYLVANIA FOR WHICH JIM THORPE PLAYED FOOTBALL? (CARLISLE)

.007

1

145

66.7

20.0

.17

.82

11.8

100.0

8.3

25

24.3

147

.08

225

273

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE PLAY IN WHICH ELWOOD P. DOWD IS A CHARACTER? (HARVEY)

.007

1

145

6.8

21.8

.12

.88

16.8

100.0

11.9

17

20.2

147

.55*

226

251

WHAT FAMOUS KNOT DID ALEXANDER THE GREAT UNDO? (GORDIAN)

.007

1

148

4.5

12.6

.17

.82

8.0

100.0

4.5

26

24.0

151

.15

227

131

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE UNSUCCESSFUL AUTO THAT WAS MANUFACTURED BY THE FORD MOTOR COMPANY FROM 1957–1959? (EDSEL)b

.007

1

149

5.2

17.9

.15

.85

20.3

100.0

16.7

22

26.7

152

.67*

228

293

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SONG WRITER WHO WROTE THE SONG “I LOVE PARIS”? (PORTER)

.007

1

149

35.9

10.9

.10

.89

10.9

50.0

8.3

15

20.0

153

.68*

229

297

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST AMERICAN AUTHOR TO WIN THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE? (LEWIS)

.007

1

150

26.3

15.4

.24

.75

19.6

20.0

19.6

36

26.5

151

.85*

230

219

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE INVENTOR OF THE WIRELESS RADIO? (MARCONI)

.007

1

152

5.8

14.1

.24

.75

25.3

40.0

24.9

37

26.0

154

.22

231

267

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ARTIST WHO PAINTED “AMERICAN GOTHIC”? (WOOD)

.007

1

152

18.8

14.0

.19

.80

18.5

100.0

15.7

29

24.6

153

.45*

232

195

IN WHAT PROFESSION WAS EMMETT KELLY? (CLOWN)b

.006

1

153

3.9

9.8

.31

.68

15.6

100.0

13.8

48

22.8

157

.15

233

249

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE RIVER THAT RUNS THROUGH ROME? (TIBER)

.006

1

154

3.5

18.1

.23

.76

22.8

100.0

20.6

36

32.0

157

.51*

234

285

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE POET WHO ORIGINALLY WROTE “DON JUAN”? (BYRON)

.006

1

162

15.3

13.6

.17

.83

17.0

75.0

14.9

27

21.7

166

.44*

235

210

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FRENCH AUTHOR WHO WROTE “THE STRANGER”? (CAMUS)

.005

1

188

7.4

10.8

.12

.88

8.8

100.0

4.6

22

17.8

198

.87*

236

250

WHO WAS THE FIRST RULER OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE? (CHARLEMAGNE)

.005

1

197

15.0

12.8

.47

.53

30.9

50.0

30.7

93

28.9

205

.59*

237

276

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO IS REGARDED AS THE NATIONAL POET OF SCOTLAND? (BURNS)

.005

1

198

6.0

12.8

.15

.84

9.6

70.0

7.6

30

14.3

202

.23

238

202

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FOOTBALL PLAYER KNOWN AS “THE GALLOPING GHOST”? (GRANGE)

.005

1

199

6.6

12.7

.20

.80

6.4

100.0

4.1

40

27.9

205

-.08

239

118

WHAT IS THE NAME OF ROY ROGERS’ HORSE? (TRIGGER)b

.005

1

202

3.9

9.4

.24

.76

17.4

100.0

15.7

48

19.0

208

.30*

240

288

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE NUCLEAR SUBMARINE THAT SUNK IN THE ATLANTIC IN 1963? (THRESHER)

.005

1

204

42.6

16.7

.15

.84

11.8

90.0

9.3

31

22.1

211

.46*

241

248

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MAN WHO REMOVED THE THORN FROM THE LION’S PAW IN THE STORY FROM AESOP’S FABLES? (ANDROCLES)

.005

1

205

23.8

12.3

.19

.80

14.3

20.0

14.2

40

22.7

210

.72*

242

232

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BRIGHTEST STAR IN THE SKY EXCLUDING THE SUN? (SIRIUS)

.005

1

207

9.8

12.7

.71

.29

46.4

50.0

46.4

147

44.7

216

.69*

243

290

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LAND OF THE GIANTS IN “GULLIVER’S TRAVELS”? (BROBDINGNAG)

.005

1

207

21.9

13.3

.13

.86

10.7

80.0

8.2

28

25.9

211

.39*

244

220

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE FEMALE STAR OF THE MOVIE “CASABLANCA”? (BERGMAN)

.005

1

209

7.4

10.9

.19

.80

13.3

99.0

11.1

40

24.3

212

.44*

245

238

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR KNOWN AS “THE MAN OF A THOUSAND FACES”? (CHANEY)

.005

1

210

8.3

15.9

.27

.73

18.0

95.0

16.6

56

26.3

218

.71*

246

194

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BASEBALL PLAYER WITH THE HIGHEST LIFETIME BATTING AVERAGE IN THE MAJOR LEAGUES? (COBB)b

.005

1

212

7.8

14.1

.68

.32

35.7

100.0

35.2

144

43.3

218

.52*

247

116

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR IN THE ROLE OF PERRY MASON ON TELEVISION? (BURR)b

.005

1

213

12.0

10.2

.12

.87

13.6

100.0

10.2

26

20.6

219

.49*

248

212

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MOST POPULAR PIN-UP GIRL OF WORLD WAR II? (GRABLE)

.004

1

225

15.5

14.0

.42

.58

39.9

100.0

39.2

94

30.5

233

.72*

249

50

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LARGEST DESERT ON EARTH? (ANTARTICA)b

.000

 

203

 

8.7

.78

.22

59.4

 

59.4

159

54.5

208

.77*

250

123

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE JOCKEY WITH THE MOST LIFETIME WINNERS IN HORSE RACING? (BAZE)b

.000

 

148

 

13.0

.15

.85

5.5

 

5.5

22

20.9

148

.25

251

130

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WAS THE VOICE OF MR. MAGOO? (BACKUS)b

.000

 

220

 

11.2

.17

.83

15.4

 

15.4

37

22.6

226

.46*

252

138

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED SERGEANT FRIDAY ON “DRAGNET”? (WEBB)b

.000

 

211

 

10.4

.13

.87

2.3

 

2.3

28

17.4

214

.44*

253

141

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED THE FATHER ON THE TELEVISION SHOW “FATHER KNOWS BEST”? (YOUNG)b

.000

 

150

 

13.8

.09

.91

19.7

 

19.7

14

27.7

153

.59*

254

151

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE VENTRILOQUIST WHO PROVIDED THE VOICE FOR CHARLIE MCCARTHY? (BERGEN)b

.000

 

148

 

12.6

.14

.86

7.5

 

7.5

21

16.6

148

.70*

255

163

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE CAPTAIN OF THE BRITISH SHIP “BOUNTY” WHEN THE MUTINY OCCURRED? (BLIGH)b

.000

 

134

 

18.3

.13

.87

7.9

 

7.9

17

17.5

137

.20

256

172

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE INVENTOR OF THE STEAMBOAT “CLERMONT”? (FULTON)b

.000

 

219

 

9.7

.23

.77

10.5

 

10.5

50

19.1

223

.49*

257

173

WHAT IS THE NAME OF GERMANY’S LARGEST BATTLESHIP THAT WAS SUNK IN WORLD WAR II? (BISMARCK)b

.000

 

148

 

14.5

.15

.85

23.3

 

23.3

22

28.8

148

.59*

258

179

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE JUDGE WHO WAS KNOWN AS “THE LAW WEST OF THE PECOS”? (BEAN)b

.000

 

156

 

9.1

.08

.92

2.1

 

2.1

13

18.4

157

.77*

259

180

WHAT IS JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH’S PROFESSION? (ECONOMIST)b

.000

 

219

 

10.6

.26

.74

8.4

 

8.4

58

18.7

224

.35*

260

186

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE UNION IRONCLAD SHIP THAT FOUGHT THE CONFEDERATE IRONCLAD MERRIMACK? (MONITOR)b

.000

 

207

 

17.6

.14

.86

3.2

 

3.2

28

16.6

212

.38*

261

197

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE DOCTOR WHO PERFORMED THE FIRST SUCCESSFUL HUMAN HEART TRANSPLANT? (BARNARD)b

.000

 

151

 

11.0

.13

.87

11.0

 

11.0

19

19.4

154

.79*

262

208

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO SAID “I ONLY REGRET THAT I HAVE BUT ONE LIFE TO LOSE FOR MY COUNTRY”? (HALE)

.000

 

206

 

18.3

.27

.73

17.9

 

17.9

56

28.3

212

.49*

263

215

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE PILOT OF THE U-2 SPY PLANE SHOT DOWN OVER RUSSIA IN 1960? (POWERS)

.000

 

144

 

12.7

.13

.88

10.6

 

10.6

18

24.6

147

.54*

264

217

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED THE SHERIFF IN THE MOVIE “HIGH NOON”? (COOPER)

.000

 

145

 

10.9

.19

.81

16.7

 

16.7

27

22.5

146

.51*

265

222

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MOUNTAIN RANGE THAT SEPARATES ASIA FROM EUROPE? (URAL)

.000

 

212

 

14.0

.50

.50

33.8

 

33.8

107

35.1

217

.65*

266

227

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOXER WHO WAS KNOWN AS THE “MANASSA MAULER”? (DEMPSEY)

.000

 

140

 

10.5

.24

.76

14.6

 

14.6

33

25.0

144

.62*

267

229

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO CREATED THE COMIC STRIP “LI’L ABNER”? (CAPP)

.000

 

146

 

13.5

.14

.86

3.9

 

3.9

20

19.6

150

.21

268

234

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BASEBALL PLAYER WHO PITCHED A PERFECT GAME IN THE 1956 WORLD SERIES? (LARSEN)

.000

 

217

 

10.3

.36

.64

22.0

 

22.0

79

34.0

223

.56*

269

239

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST MAN TO RUN THE MILE IN UNDER FOUR MINUTES? (BANNISTER)

.000

 

158

 

13.5

.25

.75

23.2

 

23.2

40

22.6

161

.59*

270

240

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “BROTHERS KARAMAZOV”? (DOSTOYEVSKI)

.000

 

200

 

10.9

.14

.87

7.5

 

7.5

27

15.0

208

.78*

271

244

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO RECEIVED A PULITZER PRIZE FOR HIS WRITINGS ABOUT ABRAHAM LINCOLN? (SANDBURG)

.000

 

205

 

10.9

.10

.90

6.3

 

6.3

20

19.4

210

.41

272

246

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO CREATED THE COMIC STRIP “WOODY WOODPECKER”? (LANTZ)

.000

 

219

 

9.9

.21

.79

16.1

 

16.1

45

21.7

225

.69*

273

252

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE WIND SPEED? (ANEMOMETER)

.000

 

207

 

13.7

.41

.59

27.8

 

27.8

85

31.6

213

.57*

274

253

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF “OUR TOWN”? (WILDER)

.000

 

142

 

11.1

.14

.86

11.0

 

11.0

20

23.2

147

.62*

275

256

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SINGER WHO MADE A HIT RECORDING OF THE SONG “WHO’S SORRY NOW”? (FRANCIS)

.000

 

207

 

12.6

.15

.85

5.3

 

5.3

32

22.8

214

.33

276

257

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE CUBAN LEADER THAT CASTRO OVERTHREW? (BATISTA)

.000

 

141

 

17.5

.12

.88

20.4

 

20.4

16

32.2

144

.33

277

260

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE RUBBER ROLLER ON A TYPEWRITER? (PLATEN)

.000

 

200

 

13.4

.23

.77

7.8

 

7.8

46

19.5

205

.41*

278

263

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE LARGEST CONFEDERATE MILITARY PRISON DURING THE CIVIL WAR? (ANDERSONVILLE)

.000

 

139

 

18.3

.14

.86

24.8

 

24.8

19

29.6

138

.50*

279

266

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF “THE AGONY AND THE ECSTASY”? (STONE)

.000

 

204

 

10.5

.10

.90

6.8

 

6.8

21

17.4

213

.44

280

268

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF FLASH’S GIRLFRIEND IN THE COMIC STRIP “FLASH GORDON”? (ARDEN)

.000

 

214

 

11.0

.20

.80

5.6

 

5.6

42

19.9

217

.04

281

269

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FIRST MOVIE TO RECEIVE THE ACADEMY AWARD FOR BEST PICTURE? (WINGS)

.000

 

127

 

17.8

.24

.76

23.8

 

23.8

30

19.6

130

.59*

282

270

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE DISCOVERER OF THE VACCINATION FOR SMALLPOX? (JENNER)

.000

 

204

 

12.8

.19

.81

12.0

 

12.0

39

23.0

208

.84*

283

271

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOY IN THE BOOK “TREASURE ISLAND”? (HAWKINS)

.000

 

144

 

10.4

.20

.80

20.0

 

20.0

29

32.0

146

.48*

284

272

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOXER WHO WON THE BOXING TITLE FROM JOHN L. SULLIVAN? (CORBETT)

.000

 

211

 

10.6

.42

.58

24.7

 

24.7

88

28.0

215

.43*

285

275

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WROTE THE SONG “HOW DEEP IS THE OCEAN”? (BERLIN)

.000

 

145

 

8.6

.12

.88

2.9

 

2.9

17

20.9

148

.27

286

277

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF BILLY THE KID? (BONNEY)

.000

 

138

 

11.5

.25

.75

17.1

 

17.1

35

25.4

142

.23

287

278

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SINGER WHOSE THEME SONG WAS “WHEN THE BLUE OF THE NIGHT MEETS THE GOLD OF THE DAY”? (CROSBY)

.000

 

214

 

11.7

.13

.87

8.3

 

8.3

28

17.9

219

.27

288

279

FROM WHAT MUSICAL IS THE SONG “BAUBLES BANGLES AND BEADS”? (KISMET)

.000

 

147

 

12.0

.16

.84

15.3

 

15.3

24

21.3

148

.55*

289

280

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED DR. WATSON IN THE SHERLOCK HOLMES SERIES? (BRUCE)

.000

 

204

 

14.2

.25

.75

36.6

 

36.6

50

32.1

211

.76*

290

281

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WAS MOST RESPONSIBLE FOR PHOTOGRAPHING THE U.S. CIVIL WAR? (BRADY)

.000

 

142

 

14.9

.13

.87

12.4

 

12.4

18

19.5

145

.39

291

283

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A NUMBER TWO WOOD IN GOLF? (BRASSIE)

.000

 

149

 

15.0

.50

.50

26.8

 

26.8

74

37.0

151

.38*

292

287

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE POET WHO WROTE THE LINE “INTO EACH LIFE A LITTLE RAIN MUST FALL”? (LONGFELLOW)

.000

 

130

 

13.0

.19

.81

11.0

 

11.0

25

20.6

131

.49*

293

289

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF GENE AUTRY’S HORSE? (CHAMPION)

.000

 

154

 

11.7

.19

.81

9.2

 

9.2

29

14.7

159

.58*

294

291

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE TOWN THROUGH WHICH LADY GODIVA SUPPOSEDLY MADE HER FAMOUS RIDE? (COVENTRY)

.000

 

138

 

16.5

.21

.79

11.7

 

11.7

29

22.0

140

.62*

295

294

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST WOMAN TO SWIM ACROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL? (EDERLE)

.000

 

203

 

9.2

.15

.85

2.2

 

2.2

30

19.2

209

.14

296

295

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST FLIER TO FLY SOLO AROUND THE WORLD? (POST)

.000

 

145

 

19.5

.41

.59

37.9

 

37.9

60

39.0

145

.62*

297

298

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WROTE THE POEM “IT COULDN’T BE DONE”? (GUEST)

.000

 

223

 

10.1

.19

.81

6.9

 

6.9

43

15.7

228

.55*

298

299

WHO WAS THE RACEHORSE OF THE YEAR FOR MANY SUCCESSIVE YEARS IN THE 1960S? (KELSO)

.000

 

146

 

16.0

.49

.51

32.1

 

32.1

72

29.8

149

.64*

299

300

WHAT IS THE HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN SOUTH AMERICA? (ACONCAGUA)

.000

 

202

 

12.8

.33

.67

32.5

 

32.5

66

29.8

210

.68*

Standard errors for the probability of recall ranged from 0 to .04. N rc = number of responses that were correct. N ri = number of responses that were incorrect. The total number of responses per question can be calculated by adding N rc to N ri. RLc = mean response latency (reaction time, in seconds) for correct responses. RLi = mean response latency (reaction time, in seconds) for incorrect responses, specifically commission errors. The total number of responses that contributed to correct and incorrect response latencies can be calculated by adding N rc to N ri. Ec = proportion of commission errors. Eo = proportion of omission errors. CJc = mean confidence judgment for correct responses. The total number of responses that contributed to the mean confidence judgment for correct responses is provided in column N rc. CJi = mean confidence judgment for incorrect responses (commission errors). N ci = number of responses that contributed to the mean confidence judgment for incorrect responses, which reflects the number of confidence judgments for commission errors. The total number of responses that contributed to the mean confidence judgment can be calculated by adding N rc to N ci. N pj = number of responses that contributed to the mean peer judgment. Judge Corr r = Pearson’s r correlation between confidence judgments and peer judgments. aSignificantly higher probability of recall in 2012 than in 1980, p < .0002. bSignificantly lower probability of recall in 2012 than in 1980, p < .0002. *Significant correlation, p < .05. The 1980 norms included one additional question: “What is the capital of Czechoslovakia?” (Prague). This question was not included because it is outdated and has no correct answer.

Table A2

Proportions of and confidence in commission errors, for errors with a proportion of .05 or greater of the total responses

2012 Rank Order

Question and Correct Response

Commission(s)

Proportion Out of Commissions

Proportion Out of Total Responses

Confidence

8

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A DRIED GRAPE? (RAISIN)

PRUNE

.69

.08

86.5

26

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN INABILITY TO SLEEP? (INSOMNIA)

APNEA

.51

.09

48.7

28

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LARGEST OCEAN ON EARTH? (PACIFIC)

ATLANTIC

.78

.22

52.2

30

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR A CYCLONE THAT OCCURS OVER LAND? (TORNADO)

HURRICANE

.48

.09

70.9

32

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BIRD THAT CANNOT FLY AND IS THE LARGEST BIRD ON EARTH? (OSTRICH)

PENGUIN

.33

.10

60.2

34

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LIZARD THAT CHANGES ITS COLOR TO MATCH THE SURROUNDINGS? (CHAMELEON)

IGUANA

.40

.14

63.5

35

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE THICK LAYER OF FAT ON A WHALE? (BLUBBER)

FLUB/FLUBBER

.43

.07

42.2

37

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A YOUNG SHEEP? (LAMB)

CALF

.27

.06

24.8

38

WHAT IS THE LARGEST PLANET IN THE SOLAR SYSTEM? (JUPITER)

SUN

.29

.11

77.5

42

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A DRIED PLUM? (PRUNE)

RAISIN

.43

.12

41.5

43

IN WHICH SPORT DOES A RIDER ON HORSEBACK HIT A BALL WITH HIS MALLET? (POLO)

CROQUET

.40

.08

34.7

46

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE POKER HAND IN WHICH ALL OF THE CARDS ARE OF THE SAME SUIT? (FLUSH)

STRAIGHT

.51

.13

40.9

47

IN WHICH SPORT IS THE STANLEY CUP AWARDED? (HOCKEY)

SOCCER

.30

.13

45.4

49

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS BAGHDAD THE CAPITAL? (IRAQ)

AFGANISTAN

.74

.29

61.1

50

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LIQUID PORTION OF WHOLE BLOOD? (PLASMA)

WATER

.29

.05

29.7

51

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CITY IN ITALY THAT IS KNOWN FOR ITS CANALS? (VENICE)

FLORENCE

.32

.08

48.6

52

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SPEAR LIKE OBJECT THAT IS THROWN DURING A TRACK MEET? (JAVELIN)

POLE/POLE VAULT

.17

.05

50.0

56

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO SHOWED THAT LIGHTNING IS ELECTRIC? (FRANKLIN)

EDISON

.52

.18

63.2

58

WHAT IS THE NAME OF DEER MEAT? (VENISON)

JERKEY

.20

.06

46.1

60

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE OCEAN THAT IS LOCATED BETWEEN AFRICA AND AUSTRALIA? (INDIAN)

PACIFIC

.52

.24

40.0

61

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SINGER WHO RECORDED “HEARTBREAK HOTEL” AND “ALL SHOOK UP”? (PRESLEY)

ELVIS

.47

.10

85.9

64

WHAT BRAND OF CIGARETTE WAS FIRST TO HAVE THE FLIP-TOP BOX? (MARLBORO)

CAMEL

.70

.22

31.0

65

WHAT KIND OF METAL IS ASSOCIATED WITH A 50TH WEDDING ANNIVERSARY? (GOLD)

SILVER

.52

.19

36.2

66

WHICH TYPE OF SNAKE DO ASIAN SNAKE-CHARMERS USE? (COBRA)

RATTLESNAKE

.59

.17

43.3

69

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF NEW YORK? (ALBANY)

NEW YORK/NEW YORK CITY

.57

.29

65.3

70

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ORGAN THAT PRODUCES INSULIN? (PANCREAS)

KIDNEY

.36

.17

49.3

72

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE EXTINCT REPTILES KNOWN AS “TERRIBLE LIZARDS”? (DINOSAURS)

DRAGON

.26

.05

20.6

74

WHICH BREED OF CAT HAS BLUE EYES? (SIAMESE)

CALICO

.24

.06

36.9

75

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SECOND U.S. PRESIDENT? (ADAMS)

JEFFERSON

.39

.16

44.0

78

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO PROPOSED THE THEORY OF RELATIVITY? (EINSTEIN)

NEWTON

.58

.12

46.5

80

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST SIGNER OF THE “DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE”? (HANCOCK)

JEFFERSON

.51

.23

44.6

82

WHAT IS THE WORD THAT MEANS A NAUTICAL MILE PER HOUR? (KNOT)

MPH

.24

.06

47.8

83

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR THE ASTRONOMICAL BODIES THAT ENTER THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE? (METEORS)

METEORITES

.26

.11

52.8

84

WHAT IS THE LONGEST RIVER IN SOUTH AMERICA? (AMAZON)

NILE

.61

.18

48.2

85

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE AUTOMOBILE INSTRUMENT THAT MEASURES MILEAGE? (ODOMETER)

SPEEDOMETER

.48

.19

47.4

86

WHAT ITALIAN CITY WAS DESTROYED WHEN MOUNT VESUVIUS ERUPTED IN 79 A.D.? (POMPEII)

ROME/ROMA

.27

.07

30.9

87

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF BATMAN’S SECRET IDENTITY IN THE BATMAN COMICS? (WAYNE)

CLARK/CLARK KENT

.40

.07

46.7

88

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MYTHICAL GIANT LUMBERJACK? (BUNYAN)

JACK

.34

.08

22.8

89

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE COMPANY THAT PRODUCES “BABY RUTH” CANDY BARS? (NESTLE)

HERSHEY

.50

.19

40.1

  

MARS

.31

.12

53.5

90

WHAT IS THE NAME OF SOCRATES’ MOST FAMOUS STUDENT? (PLATO)

ARISTOTLE

.53

.18

57.5

91

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE THREE-LEAF CLOVER THAT IS THE EMBLEM OF IRELAND? (SHAMROCK)

CLOVER

.59

.14

33.2

92

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS BUENOS AIRES THE CAPITAL? (ARGENTINA)

SPAIN

.26

.13

25.7

94

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MOUNTAIN RANGE IN WHICH MOUNT EVEREST IS LOCATED? (HIMALAYAS)

APPALACIAN

.34

.12

29.1

95

WHAT IS THE UNIT OF SOUND INTENSITY? (DECIBEL)

HERTZ

.33

.17

39.4

97

WHAT IS THE UNIT OF ELECTRICAL POWER THAT REFERS TO A CURRENT OF ONE AMPERE AT ONE VOLT? (WATT)

VOLT/VOLTAGE

.20

.06

33.9

99

IN WHICH GAME ARE MEN CROWNED? (CHECKERS)

CHESS

.17

.06

43.8

100

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO ASSASSINATED PRESIDENT JOHN F. KENNEDY? (OSWALD)

BOOTH

.30

.08

58.8

101

WHAT IS THE NAME OF BATMAN’S BUTLER? (ALFRED)

ROBIN

.16

.05

15.1

102

WHICH COUNTRY WAS THE FIRST TO USE GUNPOWDER? (CHINA)

BRITAIN/ENGLAND

.31

.17

31.3

103

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN AIRPLANE WITHOUT AN ENGINE? (GLIDER)

JET

.20

.06

20.5

104

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE NORTH STAR? (POLARIS)

NORTH/NORTH STAR

.23

.05

9.5

105

WHAT IS THE ONLY WORD THAT THE RAVEN SAYS IN EDGAR ALLEN POE’S POEM “THE RAVEN”? (NEVERMORE)

DEAD/DEATH

.21

.08

19.2

106

FOR WHICH COUNTRY IS THE YEN THE MONETARY UNIT? (JAPAN)

CHINA

.87

.53

53.1

107

IN WHAT EUROPEAN CITY IS THE PARTHENON LOCATED? (ATHENS)

ROME

.51

.20

46.2

108

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FURRY ANIMAL THAT ATTACKS COBRA SNAKES? (MONGOOSE)

BEAR

.17

.06

23.8

109

FOR WHICH COUNTRY IS THE RUPEE THE MONETARY UNIT? (INDIA)

FRANCE

.19

.05

18.6

110

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO FIRST STUDIED GENETIC INHERITANCE IN PLANTS? (MENDEL)

DARWIN

.42

.09

33.7

113

IN WHICH GAME ARE THE STANDARD PIECES OF STAUNTON DESIGN? (CHESS)

MONOPOLY

.32

.05

13.1

114

WHAT ARE PEOPLE WHO MAKE MAPS CALLED? (CARTOGRAPHERS)

GEOGRAPHER

.19

.08

32.2

117

IN WHICH CITY IS THE U.S. NAVAL ACADEMY LOCATED? (ANNAPOLIS)

WASHINGTON

.16

.06

19.6

118

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LIGHTEST WOOD KNOWN? (BALSA)

OAK

.27

.12

20.7

119

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOXER WHO LATER BECAME KNOWN AS MUHAMMAD ALI? (CLAY)

ALI

.53

.13

23.4

120

WHAT ISLAND IS THE LARGEST IN THE WORLD EXCLUDING AUSTRALIA? (GREENLAND)

HAWAII

.21

.13

22.8

121

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SMALL JAPANESE STOVE USED FOR OUTDOOR COOKING? (HIBACHI)

GRILL

.37

.12

31.5

125

IN WHAT ANCIENT CITY WERE THE “HANGING GARDENS” LOCATED? (BABYLON)

GREECE

.21

.08

31.8

126

WHAT ARE PEOPLE CALLED WHO EXPLORE CAVES? (SPELUNKERS)

EXPLORERS

.31

.14

14.3

128

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF KENTUCKY? (FRANKFORT)

LOUISVILLE

.32

.11

57.4

129

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN ILLEGAL MOVE BY A BASEBALL PITCHER THAT RESULTS IN ALL RUNNERS ADVANCING ONE BASE? (BALK)

BALL

.21

.09

54.1

132

WHICH SPORT USES THE TERMS “STONES” AND “BROOMS”? (CURLING)

BROOMBALL

.16

.08

39.9

133

WHAT IS THE PROPER NAME FOR A BADMINTON BIRD? (SHUTTLECOCK)

BIRD/BIRDIE

.92

.45

44.8

134

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE “OLIVER TWIST”? (DICKENS)

TWAIN

.27

.05

34.7

136

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO INVENTED THE PHONOGRAPH? (EDISON)

BELL

.55

.13

53.3

138

IN WHICH CITY IS HEATHROW AIRPORT LOCATED? (LONDON)

HEATHROW

.32

.08

20.0

139

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF JAMAICA? (KINGSTON)

JAMAICA

.30

.05

16.8

140

WHICH PLANET WAS THE LAST TO BE DISCOVERED? (NEPTUNE)

PLUTO

.84

.65

57.7

143

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF CHILE? (SANTIAGO)

CHILE

.41

.08

22.4

146

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FOUNTAIN IN ROME INTO WHICH COINS ARE THROWN FOR GOOD LUCK? (TREVI)

YOUTH

.31

.10

25.8

147

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO WAS PRESIDENT DIRECTLY AFTER JAMES MADISON? (MONROE)

JEFFERSON

.20

.08

30.5

148

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ASTRONOMER WHO PUBLISHED IN 1543 HIS THEORY THAT THE EARTH REVOLVES AROUND THE SUN? (COPERNICUS)

GALILEO

.51

.25

60.0

149

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE CRIMINAL WHO WAS KNOWN AS “SCARFACE”? (CAPONE)

MONTANA

.35

.13

86.0

151

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF DENMARK? (COPENHAGEN)

DENMARK

.26

.05

18.2

153

IN WHICH CITY IS MICHELANGELO’S STATUE OF DAVID LOCATED? (FLORENCE)

ROME

.56

.36

41.5

154

WHAT WAS FRANK LLOYD WRIGHT’S PROFESSION? (ARCHITECT)

WRITER/WRITING

.19

.09

17.2

155

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS NAIROBI THE CAPITAL? (KENYA)

AFRICA

.18

.06

29.4

156

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE HILLBILLY FAMILY THAT HAD A FAMOUS FEUD WITH THE MCCOY FAMILY? (HATFIELD)

BEVERLY/BEVERLY HILLBILLY

.26

.06

31.2

158

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST PERSON TO COMPLETE A SOLO FLIGHT ACROSS THE ATLANTIC OCEAN? (LINDBERGH)

AIRHEART/EARHART

.51

.19

47.1

160

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE ROMAN EMPEROR WHO FIDDLED WHILE ROME BURNED? (NERO)

CAESAR

.49

.12

35.3

161

WHAT IS THE CITY IN WHICH THE BASEBALL HALL OF FAME IS LOCATED? (COOPERSTOWN)

CHICAGO

.25

.10

22.6

162

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE UNIT OF MEASURE THAT REFERS TO A SIX-FOOT DEPTH OF WATER? (FATHOM)

LEAGUE

.20

.06

57.5

163

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE SCIENTIST WHO DISCOVERED RADIUM? (CURIE)

RADIUM

.26

.05

3.1

166

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE CRIMINAL WHO WAS KILLED BY FBI AGENTS OUTSIDE OF A CHICAGO MOVIE THEATER? (DILLINGER)

CAPONE

.27

.05

44.5

167

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SINGER WHO POPULARIZED A DANCE KNOWN AS THE “TWIST”? (CHECKER)

ELVIS

.52

.16

33.3

168

OVER WHICH RIVER IS THE GEORGE WASHINGTON BRIDGE? (HUDSON)

MISSISSIPPI

.24

.09

30.2

169

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO INVENTED DYNAMITE? (NOBEL)

DYNAMITE

.44

.11

16.0

170

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE CHINESE RELIGION FOUNDED BY LAO TSE? (TAOISM)

BUDDHISM

.60

.25

35.2

172

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE NAVIGATION INSTRUMENT USED AT SEA TO PLOT POSITION BY THE STARS? (SEXTANT)

COMPASS

.42

.23

36.5

176

FOR WHICH COUNTRY IS THE DRACHMA THE MONETARY UNIT? (GREECE)

RUSSIA

.19

.06

31.3

178

WHAT IS THE LONGEST RIVER IN ASIA? (YANGTZE)

NILE

.36

.14

39.3

181

OF WHICH COUNTRY IS BUDAPEST THE CAPITAL? (HUNGARY)

INDIA

.48

.21

30.4

182

WHO IS KNOWN AS “THE FATHER OF GEOMETRY”? (EUCLID)

PYTHAGORAS

.30

.09

30.9

184

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE COMPOSER WHO WROTE THE OPERA “DON GIOVANNI”? (MOZART)

GIOVANNI

.25

.05

24.4

185

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR OF THE JAMES BOND NOVELS? (FLEMING)

BOND

.37

.06

6.8

186

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF BUFFALO BILL? (CODY)

BILL

.35

.09

36.7

187

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE AUTHOR WHO WROTE UNDER THE PSEUDONYM OF MARK TWAIN? (CLEMENS)

TWAIN

.53

.09

15.4

190

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO BEGAN THE REFORMATION IN GERMANY? (LUTHER)

HITLER

.83

.44

58.9

192

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE APOLLO LUNAR MODULE THAT LANDED THE FIRST MAN ON THE MOON? (EAGLE)

APOLLO

.22

.08

17.3

193

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE COSMONAUT WHO WAS THE FIRST PERSON TO ORBIT AROUND THE EARTH? (GAGARIN)

ARMSTRONG

.27

.08

34.2

201

IN WHICH COUNTRY IS ANGEL FALLS LOCATED? (VENEZUELA)

CANADA

.16

.06

20.9

202

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF CANADA? (OTTAWA)

TORONTO

.28

.20

49.8

203

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE TWENTY-FIRST U.S. PRESIDENT? (ARTHUR)

BUSH

.14

.07

21.7

204

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE GOLDFISH IN THE STORY OF PINOCCHIO? (CLEO)

GOLDIE

.23

.06

12.6

207

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF AUSTRALIA? (CANBERRA)

SYDNEY

.79

.50

80.3

208

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE ARTIST WHO PAINTED “THE PERSISTENCE OF MEMORY”? (DALI)

DAVINCI

.24

.05

11.4

209

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO INVENTED THE TELEGRAPH? (MORSE)

BELL

.40

.16

59.6

211

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE SUBSTANCE DERIVED FROM A WHALE THAT IS USED TO MAKE PERFUME? (AMBERGRIS)

BLUBBER

.64

.29

36.4

213

WHAT WAS THE NAME OF THE CLOWN ON THE “HOWDY DOODY” TELEVISION SHOW? (CLARABELL)

BOZO

.42

.08

25.5

215

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MOVIE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED SPARTACUS? (DOUGLAS)

BUTLER

.23

.06

53.8

217

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE UNION GENERAL WHO DEFEATED THE CONFEDERATE ARMY AT THE CIVIL WAR BATTLE OF GETTYSBURG? (MEADE)

GRANT

.29

.13

66.7

218

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE AVENUE THAT IMMEDIATELY FOLLOWS ATLANTIC AVENUE IN THE GAME OF MONOPOLY? (VENTNOR)

PACIFIC

.40

.15

26.2

233

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE RIVER THAT RUNS THROUGH ROME? (TIBER)

NILE

.25

.06

21.6

236

WHO WAS THE FIRST RULER OF THE HOLY ROMAN EMPIRE? (CHARLEMAGNE)

CAESAR

.55

.26

38.5

242

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BRIGHTEST STAR IN THE SKY EXCLUDING THE SUN? (SIRIUS)

NORTH/NORTH STAR

.58

.41

47.1

246

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE BASEBALL PLAYER WITH THE HIGHEST LIFETIME BATTING AVERAGE IN THE MAJOR LEAGUES? (COBB)

BABE/BABE RUTH/ RUTH

.71

.48

40.0

248

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MOST POPULAR PIN-UP GIRL OF WORLD WAR II? (GRABLE)

MONROE

.40

.17

46.9

249

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LARGEST DESERT ON EARTH? (ANTARTICA)

SAHARA

.82

.65

63.9

256

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE INVENTOR OF THE STEAMBOAT “CLERMONT”? (FULTON)

CLERMONT

.54

.12

15.1

259

WHAT IS JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH’S PROFESSION? (ECONOMIST)

WRITER

.21

.05

14.5

262

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO SAID “I ONLY REGRET THAT I HAVE BUT ONE LIFE TO LOSE FOR MY COUNTRY”? (HALE)

WASHINGTON

.34

.09

13.3

265

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE MOUNTAIN RANGE THAT SEPARATES ASIA FROM EUROPE? (URAL)

HIMALAYAS

.34

.17

56.4

266

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOXER WHO WAS KNOWN AS THE “MANASSA MAULER”? (DEMPSEY)

ALI

.48

.11

23.1

268

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BASEBALL PLAYER WHO PITCHED A PERFECT GAME IN THE 1956 WORLD SERIES? (LARSEN)

RUTH

.63

.23

28.9

272

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE MAN WHO CREATED THE COMIC STRIP “WOODY WOODPECKER”? (LANTZ)

DISNEY

.27

.05

28.8

273

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE INSTRUMENT USED TO MEASURE WIND SPEED? (ANEMOMETER)

BAROMETER

.47

.19

43.3

281

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FIRST MOVIE TO RECEIVE THE ACADEMY AWARD FOR BEST PICTURE? (WINGS)

TITANIC

.43

.10

29.4

284

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE BOXER WHO WON THE BOXING TITLE FROM JOHN L. SULLIVAN? (CORBETT)

ALI

.42

.18

31.2

289

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED DR. WATSON IN THE SHERLOCK HOLMES SERIES? (BRUCE)

LAW

.36

.09

65.0

291

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A NUMBER TWO WOOD IN GOLF? (BRASSIE)

DRIVER

.22

.11

52.2

295

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST WOMAN TO SWIM ACROSS THE ENGLISH CHANNEL? (EDERLE)

SMITH

.33

.05

1.2

296

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST FLIER TO FLY SOLO AROUND THE WORLD? (POST)

AIRHEART/EARHART

.48

.20

52.4

298

WHO WAS THE RACEHORSE OF THE YEAR FOR MANY SUCCESSIVE YEARS IN THE 1960’S? (KELSO)

SEABISCUIT

.60

.29

40.8

299

WHAT IS THE HIGHEST MOUNTAIN IN SOUTH AMERICA? (ACONCAGUA)

ANDES

.24

.08

37.6

Commission responses and mean confidence judgments in commission responses are provided for those questions with consistencies in errors for .05 or greater out of the total responses. When available, the top three commission errors are provided; otherwise, the top one or two commission errors are provided.

Table A3

Questions for which the correct response has changed from the 1980 norms

2012 Rank Order

Question

1980 Correct Response

2012 Correct Response

Questions for which the 1980 response was incorrect

16

WHAT IS THE NAME OF A GIANT OCEAN WAVE CAUSED BY AN EARTHQUAKE?

TIDALa

TSUNAMI

89

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE COMPANY THAT PRODUCES “BABY RUTH” CANDY BARS?

CURTISSb

NESTLE

140

WHICH PLANET WAS THE LAST TO BE DISCOVERED?

PLUTOb

NEPTUNE

229

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE FIRST AMERICAN AUTHOR TO WIN THE NOBEL PRIZE FOR LITERATURE?

HENRYa

LEWIS

249

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE LARGEST DESERT ON EARTH?

SAHARAa

ANTARTICA

250

WHAT IS THE LAST NAME OF THE JOCKEY WITH THE MOST LIFETIME WINNERS IN HORSE RACING?

SHOEMAKERb

BAZE

WHAT IS THE CAPITAL OF CZECHOSLOVAKIA?

PRAGUEc

 

Questions for which the 1980 response is still correct, but participants provided alternative responses that are also correct

30

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR A CYCLONE THAT OCCURS OVER LAND?d

TORNADO

HURRICANE

66

WHICH TYPE OF SNAKE DO ASIAN SNAKE-CHARMERS USE?

COBRA

VIPER

74

WHICH BREED OF CAT HAS BLUE EYES?

SIAMESE

HIMALAYAN

83

WHAT IS THE NAME FOR THE ASTRONOMICAL BODIES THAT ENTER THE EARTH’S ATMOSPHERE?d

METEOR

METEORITE

103

WHAT IS THE NAME OF AN AIRPLANE WITHOUT AN ENGINE?

GLIDER

PAPER, MODEL

108

WHAT IS THE NAME OF THE FURRY ANIMAL THAT ATTACKS COBRA SNAKES?

MONGOOSE

HONEY BADGER

259

WHAT IS JOHN KENNETH GALBRAITH’S PROFESSION?

ECONOMIST

PROFESSOR

289

WHAT WAS THE LAST NAME OF THE ACTOR WHO PORTRAYED DR. WATSON IN THE SHERLOCK HOLMES SERIES?

BRUCE

LAW

aThe 1980 response was incorrect. bThe 1980 response was correct at the time, but is now incorrect. cOutdated question: Czechoslovakia is no longer a country, so there is no correct response. dThe wording of the question is somewhat ambiguous, so the alternative response could be considered correct.

Copyright information

© Psychonomic Society, Inc. 2013