The European Physical Journal D

, 67:57

A sum rule for charged elementary particles

Open AccessRegular Article

DOI: 10.1140/epjd/e2013-30577-8

Cite this article as:
Leuchs, G. & Sánchez-Soto, L.L. Eur. Phys. J. D (2013) 67: 57. doi:10.1140/epjd/e2013-30577-8


There may be a link between the quantum properties of the vacuum and the parameters describing the properties of light propagation, culminating in a sum over all types of elementary particles existing in Nature weighted only by their squared charges and independent of their masses. The estimate for that sum is of the order of 100.


Quantum Optics
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© EDP Sciences, Società Italiana di Fisica, Springer-Verlag 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für die Physik des LichtsErlangenGermany
  2. 2.Department für PhysikUniversität Erlangen-NürnbergErlangenGermany
  3. 3.Departamento de Óptica, Facultad de FísicaUniversidad ComplutenseMadridSpain