Natural Pollution Caused by the Extremely Acid Crater Lake Kawah Ijen, East Java, Indonesia (7 pp)
- First Online:
- Cite this article as:
- Löhr, A., Bogaard, T., Heikens, A. et al. Env Sci Poll Res Int (2005) 12: 89. doi:10.1065/espr2004.09.118
- 203 Downloads
Background. Aims and Scope
Lakes developing in volcano craters can become highly acidic through the influx of volcanic gases, yielding one of the chemically most extreme natural environments on earth. The Kawah Ijen crater lake in East Java (Indonesia) has a pH 〈 0.3. It is the source of the extremely acid and metal-polluted river Banyupahit (45 km). The lake has a significant impact on the river ecosystem as well as on a densely populated area downstream, where agricultural fields are irrigated with water with a pH between 2.5 and 3.5. The chemistry of the river water seemed to have changed over the past decade and the negative effect in the irrigation area increased. A multidisciplinary approach was used to investigate the altered situation and to get insight in the water chemistry and the hydrological processes influencing these alterations. Moreover, a first investigation of the effects of the low pH on ecosystem health and human health was performed.
Water samples were taken at different sites along the river and in the irrigation area. Sampling for macroinvertebrates was performed at the same sites. Samples of soil and crop were taken in the irrigation area. All samples were analysed for metals (using ICP-AES) and other elements, and concentrations were compared to local and international standards.
Results and Discussion
The river carries a very high load of SO4, NH4, PO4, Cl, F, Fe, Cu, Pb, Zn, Al and other potentially toxic elements. Precipitation and discharge data over the period of 1980 – 2000 clearly show that the precipitation on the Ijen plateau influences water chemistry of the downstream river. Metal concentrations in the river water exceed the concentrations mentioned in Indonesian and international quality guidelines, even in the downstream river and the irrigation area. Some metal concentrations are extremely high, especially iron (up to 1600 mg/l) and aluminium (up to 3000 mg/l). The food-webs in the acidic parts of the river are highly underdeveloped. No invertebrates were present in the extremely acid water and, at pH 2.3, only chironomids were found. This also holds true for the river water with pH 3.3 in the downstream area. Agricultural soils in the irrigation area have a pH of 3.9 compared to a pH of 7.0 for soils irrigated with neutral water. Decreased yields of cultivated crops are probably caused by the use of Al containing acid irrigation water. Increased levels of metals (especially Cd, Co, Ni and Mn) are found in different foodstuffs, but still remain within acceptable ranges. Considering local residents” diets, Cd levels may lead to an increased risk for the human health. Fluoride exposure is of highest concern, with levels in drinking water exceeding guideline values and a lot of local residents suffering from dental fluorosis.
Conclusions, Recommendations and Outlook
In short, our data indicate that the Ijen crater lake presents a serious threat to the environment as well as human health and agricultural production.