Akresh, R. (2009). Flexibility of household structure: Child fostering decisions in Burkina Faso. Journal of Human Resources, 44,
Alber, E. (2004). Grandparents as foster-parents: Transformations in foster relations between grandparents and grandchildren in northern Benin. Africa, 74,
Amato, P. R. (2000). The consequences of divorce for adults and children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62,
Amato, P. R., & DeBoer, D. D. (2001). The transmission of marital instability across generations: Relationship skills or commitment to marriage? Journal of Marriage and Family, 63,
Anglewicz, P. (2012). Migration, marital change, and HIV infection in Malawi. Demography, 49,
Beegle, K., Filmer, D., Stokes, A., & Tiererova, L. (2010). Orphanhood and the living arrangements of children in sub-Saharan Africa. World Development, 38,
Bicego, G., Rutstein, S., & Johnson, K. (2003). Dimensions of the emerging orphan crisis in sub-Saharan Africa. Social Science & Medicine, 56,
Bignami-Van Assche, S., Reniers, G., & Weinreb, A. A. (2003). An assessment of the KDICP and MDICP data quality: Interviewer effects, question reliability and sample attrition. Demographic Research, Special Collection 1
(article 2), 31–76. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2003.S1.2
Bledsoe, C. (1990). Transformations in sub-Saharan African marriage and fertility. Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science, 510,
Bledsoe, C. (1993). The politics of polygyny in Mende education and child fostering transactions. In B. D. Miller (Ed.), Sex and gender hierarchies (pp. 170–192). Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Bledsoe, C., & Isiugo-Abanihe, U. (1989). Strategies of child-fosterage among Mende grannies in Sierra Leone. In R. Lesthaeghe (Ed.), Reproduction and social organization in sub-Saharan Africa (pp. 442–474). Berkeley: University of California Press.
Brown, S. L. (2004). Family structure and child well-being: The significance of parental cohabitation. Journal of Marriage and Family, 66,
Carsten, J. (1991). Children in between: Fostering and the process of kinship in Pulau Langkawi, Malaysia. Man, 26,
Case, A., Paxson, C., & Ableidinger, J. (2004). Orphans in Africa: Parental death, poverty and school enrollment. Demography, 41,
Castle, S. (1996). The current and intergenerational impact of child fostering on children’s nutritional status in rural Mali. Human Organization, 55, 193–205.
Clark, S., & Hamplova, D. (2013). Single motherhood and child mortality in sub-Saharan Africa: A life course perspective. Demography
. Advance online publication. doi:10.1007/s13524-013-0220-6
Desai, S. (1992). Children at risk: The role of family structure in Latin America and West Africa. Population and Development Review, 18,
Dubin, J. A., & Rivers, D. (1989). Selection bias in linear regression, logit and probit models. Sociological Methods and Research, 18,
Evans, D. K., & Miguel, E. (2007). Orphans and schooling in Africa: A longitudinal analysis. Demography, 44,
Fomby, P., & Cherlin, A. J. (2007). Family instability and child well-being. American Sociological Review, 72,
Goody, E. N. (1973). Contexts of kinship: An essay in the family sociology of the Gonja of northern Ghana. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Goody, E. N. (1982). Parenthood and social reproduction: Fostering and occupational roles in west Africa. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
Grant, M. J., & Yeatman, S. (2012). The relationship between orphanhood and child fostering in sub-Saharan Africa. Population Studies, 66,
Hosegood, V., Floyd, S., Marston, M., Hill, C., McGrath, N., Isingo, R., & Zaba, B. (2007). The effects of high HIV prevalence on orphanhood and living arrangements of children in Malawi, Tanzania, and South Africa. Population Studies, 61,
ICF Macro and National Statistics Office (NSO). (2010). Malawi Demographic and Health Survey. Calverton, MD: ICF Macro.
Isiugo-Abanihe, U. (1985). Child fosterage in West Africa. Population and Development Review, 11,
Kaler, A. (2001). “Many divorces and many spinsters”: Marriage as an invented tradition in southern Malawi, 1946–1999. Journal of Family History, 26,
Lesthaeghe, R. J. (Ed.). (1989). Reproduction and social organization in sub-Saharan Africa. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Lloyd, C., & Desai, S. (1992). Children’s living arrangements in developing countries. Population Research and Policy Review, 11,
Locoh, T., & Thiriat, M. P. (1995). Divorce et remarriage des femmes en Afrique de l’Ouest. Le cas du Togo [Divorce and remarriage of women in West Africa: The case of Togo]. Population, 50
Madhavan, S. (2004). Fosterage patterns in the age of AIDS: Continuity and change. Social Science & Medicine, 58,
Magnuson, K., & Berger, L. M. (2009). Family structure states and transitions: Associations with children’s wellbeing during middle childhood. Journal of Marriage and Family, 71,
Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health (MLSFH). (2009). Malawi Longitudinal Study of Families and Health—Newsletter 2008/1: Summary of data collection 1998–2008
. Retrieved from http://www.malawi.pop.upenn.edu
Mason, K. O. (1997). Explaining fertility transitions. Demography, 34,
McDaniel, A., & Zulu, E. (1996). Mothers, fathers and children: Regional patterns in child-parent residence in sub-Saharan Africa. African Population Studies, 11, 1–28.
McLanahan, S., & Percheski, C. (2008). Family structure and the reproduction of inequalities. Annual Review of Sociology, 34,
Mitchell, J. C. (1956). The Yao village: A study in the social structure of a Nyasaland tribe. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.
Mkandawire-Valhmu, L., Wendland, C., Stevens, P. E., Kako, P. M., Dressel, A., & Kibicho, J. (2013). Marriage as a risk factor for HIV: Learning from the experiences of HIV-infected women in Malawi. Global Public Health, 8,
Monasch, R., & Boerma, J. T. (2004). Orphanhood and childcare patterns in sub-Saharan Africa: An analysis of national surveys from 40 countries. AIDS, 18
(Suppl. 2), S55–S65.CrossRef
National Statistical Office (NSO) and ICF Macro. (2011). Malawi Demographic and Health Survey 2010. Zomba, Malawi, and Calverton, MD: NSO and ICF Macro.
Notermans, C. (2004). Fosterage and the politics of marriage and kinship in East Cameroon. In F. Bowie (Ed.), Cross-cultural approaches to adoption (pp. 48–61). New York: Routledge.
Nyambedha, E. O., Wandibba, S., & Aagaard-Hansen, J. (2003). Changing patterns of orphan care due to the HIV epidemic in western Kenya. Social Science & Medicine, 57,
Nyamukapa, C., & Gregson, S. (2005). Extended family’s and women’s roles in safeguarding orphans’ education in AIDS-afflicted rural Zimbabwe. Social Science & Medicine, 60,
Oppong, C. (1973). Growing up in Dagbon. Accra: Ghana Publication Corporation.
Oppong, C., & Bleek, W. (1982). Economic models and having children: Some evidence from Kwahu, Ghana. Africa, 52
Osborne, C., & McLanahan, S. (2007). Partnership instability and child well-being. Journal of Marriage and Family, 69,
Peters, P. E. (1997). Against the odds: Matriliny, land and gender in the Shire Highlands of Malawi. Critique of Anthropology, 17,
Peterson, J. L., & Zill, N. (1986). Marital disruption, parent-child relationships and behavior problems in children. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 48,
Phiri, K. M. (1983). Some changes in the matrilineal family system among the Chewa of Malawi since the nineteenth century. Journal of African History, 24,
Porter, L., Hao, L., Bishai, D., Serwadda, D., Wawer, M. J., Lutalo, T., & The Rakai Project Team. (2004). HIV status and union dissolution in sub-Saharan Africa: The case of Rakai, Uganda. Demography, 41,
Reniers, G. (2003). Divorce and remarriage in rural Malawi. Demographic Research, Special Collection 1
(article 6), 176–202. doi:10.4054/DemRes.2003.S1.6
Reniers, G. (2008). Marital strategies for regulating exposure to HIV. Demography, 45,
Schatz, E. (2005). “Take your mat and go!”: Rural Malawian women’s strategies in the HIV/AIDS era. Culture, Health and Sexuality, 7,
Seltzer, J. (1994). Consequences of marital dissolution for children. Annual Review of Sociology, 20,
Serra, R. (2009). Child fostering in Africa: When labor and schooling motives may coexist. Journal of Development Economics, 88,
Sigle-Rushton, W., & McLanahan, S. (2004). Father absence and child well-being: A critical review. In D. P. Moynihan, T. M. Smeeding, & L. Rainwater (Eds.), The future of the family (pp. 116–155). New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
Silk, J. B. (1987). Adoption and fosterage in human societies: Adaptations or enigmas? Cultural Anthropology, 2,
Sinclair, J. (1972). Educational assistance, kinship, and the social structure in Sierra Leone. Africana Research Bulletin, 2(3), 30–62.
Smith, K., & Watkins, S. (2005). Perceptions of risk and strategies for prevention: Responses to HIV/AIDS in rural Malawi. Social Science & Medicine, 60,
StataCorp. (2009). Stata: Release 11 [statistical software]. College Station, TX: StataCorp LP.
Takane, T. (2008). Customary land tenure, inheritance rules, and smallholder farmers in Malawi. Journal of Southern African Studies, 34,
Tawfik, L. A. (2003). Soap, sweetness, and revenge: Patterns of sexual onset and partnerships amidst AIDS in rural southern Malawi (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD.
Thomson, E., Hanson, T., & McLanahan, S. (1994). Family structure and child well-being: Economic resources vs. parental behaviors. Social Forces, 73, 221–242.
Tilson, D., & Larson, U. (2000). Divorce in Ethiopia: The impact of early marriage and childlessness. Journal of Biosocial Science, 32,
Urassa, M., Boerma, J. T., Ng’weshemi, J. Z. L., Isingo, R., Schapink, D., & Kumogola, Y. (1997). Orphanhood, child fostering, and the AIDS epidemic in rural Tanzania. Health Transition Review, 7(Suppl. 2), 141–153.
Vandermeersch, C. (2002). Child fostering under six in Senegal in 1992–1993. Population (English), 57, 659–685.
Verhoef, H., & Morelli, G. (2007). “A child is a child”: Fostering experiences in northwestern Cameroon. Ethos, 35,
Wanda, B. P. (1988). Customary family law in Malawi: Adherence to tradition and adaptability to change. Journal of Legal Pluralism and Unofficial Law, 27,