Kew Bulletin

, Volume 65, Issue 2, pp 241–254

Mastigostyla I. M. Johnst. in Bolivia: three new species and new data on M. cardenasii R. C. Foster

Authors

  • Hibert Huaylla
    • Herbario Chuquisaca (HSB)Universidad Mayor, Real, Pontificial, San Francisco Xavier de Chuquisaca
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
  • Odile Weber
    • Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s12225-010-9199-y

Cite this article as:
Huaylla, H., Wilkin, P. & Weber, O. Kew Bull (2010) 65: 241. doi:10.1007/s12225-010-9199-y

Summary

Four species of Mastigostyla (Iridaceae) from Bolivia are described, illustrated and maps of their distribution provided: M. cardenasii R. C. Foster, M. chuquisacensis Huaylla & Wilkin, M. torotoroensis Huaylla & Wilkin and M. woodii Huaylla & Wilkin, the last three as new species. Mastigostyla gracilis R. C. Foster is synonymised under M. cardenasii R. C. Foster. Notes on conservation status, nomenclature and identification are included. Although some uncertainty exists over generic placement due to phylogenetic systematic research now in progress, marked infraspecific variation is documented for the first time within South American Tigridieae. This draws attention to the need for more extensive sampling if adequate species delimitation is to be achieved in Tigridieae. Photographs illustrate morphological variation in all four species. A key is provided to facilitate identification of Bolivian Mastigostyla.

Key words

BoliviaconservationIridaceaeMastigostylataxonomyTigridieaevariation

Introduction

During the course of the Darwin Initiative project to study plant endemism in the Inter-Andean valleys of Bolivia (http://darwin.defra.gov.uk/project/11010/), collections of Iridaceae were made indicating the existence of considerable diversity in this region of Bolivia. Most species belong to the tribe Tigridieae Juss. as recognised by Goldblatt et al. (1998). In Bolivia members of this tribe can be recognised by having few, plicate leaves, which are ensiform or linear to lanceolate in shape. The bulbs possess dark brown or black tunics (dark red in Ennealophus N. E. Br.). Goldblatt et al. recognised ten genera within the Tigridieae that occur in Bolivia: Alophia Herb., Calydorea Herb., Cardenanthus R. C. Foster, Cipura Aubl., Cypella Herb., Eleutherine Herb., Ennealophus N. E. Brown, Herbertia Sweet, Mastigostyla I. M. Johnst., and Tigridia Juss. Recent molecular systematic studies of Iridaceae (Reeves et al.2000; Goldblatt et al. 2008) have confirmed the monophyly of Tigridieae. However, papers by Rodriguez & Sytsma (2006) and Goldblatt et al. (2008) have raised doubts about the status of many of the hitherto accepted genera and, in particular, have shown that the name Tigridia must be applied only to Mexican and Guatemalan plants, leaving the South American species placed in this genus without an accepted generic home for the present. Previous studies in Bolivian Iridaceae were published in a series of papers by Foster (1946, 1948, 1950, 1962), who described a number of new species within various genera. In view of the phylogenetic systematic research described above, it is difficult to assess to which genus many of Foster’s species should now be assigned. A further complication relates to the genus Sphenostigma Baker. Several species were placed in this genus by Foster (1946), but more recently Ravenna (1977) transferred the type, S. sellowianum (Klatt) Baker, to Gelasine Herb. as a synonym of Gelasine coerulea (Vell.) Ravenna, thus leaving the remaining South American species of Sphenostigma without generic placement. The Central American species were placed in Cardiostigma Baker by Ravenna, but moved by Goldblatt & Henrich (1991) to Calydorea. In a recent paper (Goldblatt et al. 2008) they have been included in Tigridia.

Studies in Iridaceae at species level have always been made difficult by the unsatisfactory nature of herbarium specimens. Diagnostic characters are found primarily in the structure of the flowers but the tepals of most species are very delicate and are often destroyed or distorted in the drying process. Subsequent examination is also difficult as the tepals are frequently broken when rehydrated. However in recent years, field work by the Darwin Initiative project in Bolivia, supported by photographs of living plants subsequently collected as specimens, has enabled us to characterise various little-known species including Mastigostyla cardenasii R. C. Foster and to identify a number of new taxa. The three new taxa described in this paper are provisionally described in Mastigostyla as the oldest available name of a genus in which they might reasonably be placed; the genus appears to form a clade with Cardenanthus and South American species previously assigned to Tigridia in recent molecular systematic studies (Goldblatt et al., unpublished data). We were able to exclude all other genera of Tigridieae for our specimens on the basis of morphological characters used in Goldblatt et al. (1998), including Cardenanthus in which the tepals are fused into a short tube. The plants described here all have free tepals. The first new species described below approaches Herbertia Sweet in its morphology but differs in possessing no oil glands on the inner tepals, which are smooth. M. torotoroense (described below) is also similar to the Central and North American genus Nemastylis Nutt. but has unequal tepal whorls and is atypical in that it does not have its anthers appressed to the style branches. Thus describing these species in Mastigostyla expands the morphological range of variation of the genus. The taxonomy of the new species as well as that of Mastigostyla as a whole will be very likely to change when a revised generic classification of the Tigridieae is published. Two other species of Mastigostyla occur in Bolivia: M. brevicaulis (Baker) R. C. Foster and M. potosina R. C. Foster (Barker 2008). The same resource lists 17 species distributed from Peru to Northern Argentina and Chile for the genus as a whole. A key to species of Mastigostyla in Bolivia, including those newly described in this paper, is provided below to aid identification.

Descriptions

Mastigostyla cardenasiiR. C. Foster (1945: 25). Type: “Peru, Cusco, Saxaihuaman” (probably in fact Bolivia, see Notes below), fl. “March 1943”, Cárdenas 2337 (holotypus GH!).

Mastigostyla gracilis R. C. Foster (Foster 1962: 296), synon. nov. Type: Bolivia, Mizque, fl. 31 March 1939, Eyerdam 25081 (holotype UC, isotype F!).

Perennial herb, 10 – 40 cm in height, erect; bulb c. 2.5 × 1.5 cm, ovoid, tunics papery, brown to dark brown, neck 18 – 66 mm long, comprising narrowly linear projections of the tunics. Leaves basal and cauline, linear, acuminate, parallel-veined and longitudinally plicate, scabrid on the veins and margins, plant otherwise glabrous; basal leaves 1 or 2, 11.5 – 32.5 × 0.1 – 0.3 cm; stem leaves 1 – 3, 8.0 – 30.2 × 0.15 – 0.25 cm. Inflorescences cymose, 2 – 4 flowered; peduncles 1.5 – 20.3 cm long, sulcate; bracts 2 – 5, 30 – 52 × 4 – 6 mm long, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic or oblanceolate, concolorous with leaves to purple-hued, turning russet-brown and drying out from the tips in fruit, clasping each other at base for up to 12 mm, apex acuminate, margins translucent; pedicels 31 – 34 mm long, terete, ±erect so flowers are held erect; tepals free; outer 27 – 42 × 12 – 21 mm, obovate-spathulate, the ventral surface blue, the centre with white lines and dark blue irregular patches, the dorsal surface sky-blue, base an ascending (8 –) 10 – 12 mm long claw, blade 19 – 34 mm long, obovate to oblong-obovate, spreading to recurved, more recurved towards obtuse apex; inner 5 – 7 × 1 – 2 mm, oblanceolate, erect, blue, acuminate; filaments fused to form a 10 – 13 mm long, erect column, anthers 9 – 11 mm long, narrowly oblong, flat and appressed to each of the 3 style branches; style branches 9 – 16 mm long, lorate in outline with a longitudinal central furrow, apically bifid for 3 – 5.5 mm and divided into 2 – 7 concolorous lobed crests which are apically stigmatic; ovary 5 – 8 × 2 – 2.5 mm oblongoid-claviform, glabrous. Fruit a dry capsule, seeds numerous, subspheroidal, angled, surface smooth, yellowish. Fig. 1.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig1_HTML.jpg
Fig. 1

A – E Photographs of Mastigostyla cardenasii showing its floral morphology. AWood & Huaylla 23199; B not linked to a herbarium specimen; C – EWood & Haigh 21676. photosa, bhibert huaylla &c – eanna haigh.

Distribution. In the inter-Andean valleys and subpuna vegetation of Cochabamba Department in Bolivia (Map 1B).
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig2_HTML.gif
Map 1

A map of Bolivia and the surrounding countries showing the location of the area of the distribution map in B, centred on Cochabamba, Potosi and Chuquisaca Departments. B map of South-Central Bolivia showing the distributions of M. cardenasii (light blue triangle), M. chuquisacensis (white circle), M. torotoroensis (mid-blue circle) and M. woodii (pink square) in Cochabamba, Potosi and Chuquisaca Departments. The departmental capitals Cochabamba and Sucre (Chuquisaca) are included, as are the towns of Mizque (Cochabamba) and Torotoro (Potosi). An elevation layer has been added (Reuter et al.2007; Jarvis et al. 2008). Maps prepared using Arc View 3.3 software.

Specimens Examined. Bolivia. Cochabamba: Arze, Huairapata, near Anzaldo, fl. April 1944, Cárdenas 2491 (US!). Campero, Pasorapa, c. 7 km N del pueblo de Pasorapa, sobre la cumbre en el camino a Peña Colorada [18°19′13″S 64°43′07″], fl. 21 Feb. 2003, Wood & Mendoza 19188 (K!, LPB!, USZ!). Carrasco, c. 4 km S of Totora on the road to Aiquile [17°47′S 65°12′W], fl. 20 March 1994, Wood 8140 (BOLV!, K!, LPB!); 2 – 3 km S of Totora towards Aiquile [17°45.772′S 65°12.055′W], fl. 20 March 2003, Wood & Mercado 19518 (BOLV!, K!, LPB!). Mizque, Chaguarani, fl. 31 March 1939, Eyerdam 25081 (F!, UC); Area of Raqay Pampa 1 – 2 km from escarpment heading N on road to Tintin [18°08′97″S 65°26′08″W], fl. 22 March 2007, Wood & Huaylla 23199 (BOLV!, K!, LPB!). Quillacollo, San Miguel, 17°16′16″S 66°20′15″W, fl. 3 April 2002, Ramírez 321 (BOLV!, LPB!); Tholapujru [17°16′60″S 66°13′13″W], fl. 24 March 2004, Vargas et al. 49 (BOLV!, LPB!). Tiraque, 0.5 km W of first of westernmost turning to Tiraque along old Cochabamba – Santa Cruz highway [17°16′48″S 65°26′24″W], fl. 1 March 2005, Wood & Haigh 21676 (BOLV!, K!, LPB!). Peru. Cusco: Saxaihuaman, fl. March 1943, Cárdenas 2337 (holotype GH!) (see notes below).

Habitat. A plant of bare open, stony banks and field borders (occasionally growing as a weed of cultivation); 2500 – 3900 m.

Conservation Status. Although very restricted in distribution, this species is well adapted to disturbance, which possibly favours its spread, so it is considered to be Least Concern (LC) at present. However, since it is horticulturally attractive, it might be vulnerable to uprooting for cultivation in gardens so careful monitoring of its populations is desirable.

Phenology. Flowers towards the end of the rainy season from February to April.

Notes.Mastigostyla cardenasii is distinguished from M. chuquisacensis and other species by its long, 2 – 7-crested style branches, 9 – 16 mm in length, acuminate inner tepals and the obovate-spathulate, 27 – 42 × 12 – 21 mm outer tepals which have a (8 –) 10 – 12 mm long, narrow basal claw and a 19 – 34 mm long blade.

Mastigostyla cardenasii is frequent but scattered in occurrence in Cochabamba Department in Bolivia but has never been found anywhere else except for the type collection at Cusco in Peru. This is a highly improbable natural distribution and we cannot trace any other species with a similar disjunct distribution. It seems likely that Cárdenas made some error in labelling the specimen especially as the Cusco area is quite well known botanically. At least one other case of mislabelling of a type collection by Cárdenas is known. Hippeastrum incachacanum (Amaryllidaceae) was supposedly collected at Incachaca in Cochabamba Department (Cárdenas 1965) but actually comes from the Río Surutu in Santa Cruz Department (Vásquez 2001). Furthermore, we have been informed by Mr Raul Lara, who knew Cárdenas personally and has studied his itineraries and collection numbers, that Cárdenas 2337 dates from 1933 (not 1943) when Cárdenas was collecting mainly in Potosi Department. There is no evidence that he went to Cusco at this time or indeed in 1943. For these reasons we think Brako & Zarucchi (1993) were correct to exclude it from their Catalogue of flowering plants of Peru and that it should be considered an endemic species of the Bolivian inter-Andean valleys.

Foster (1962) gives the outer tepal dimensions of Mastigostyla gracilis as to 3 cm  ×  8 mm. However, his measurements were taken from one poorly preserved type collection in which there has been damage to and shrinkage of the tepals; it clearly falls within the variation of M. cardenasii.

Mastigostyla chuquisacensisHuaylla & Wilkinsp. nov. a M. cardenasii R. C. Foster, tepalis exterioribus parvioribus, usque 25 – 33 × 10 – 14 mm, et ramis stylorum brevioribus, usque 8 mm longis, a M. potosina R. C. Foster tepalis exterioribus oblongis-ellipticis usque oblanceolatis, non acuminatis, ab ambabos tepalis exterioribus basin cuneatis, non unguiculatis, tepalis interioribus, oblanceolatis, obtusis usque apiculatis differt. Typus: Bolivia, Chuquisaca, Oropeza, Cerro Chataquila, fl. 28 March 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 23272 (holotypus K!; isotypi HSB!, LPB!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105280-1

Perennial herb, 20 – 45 cm in height, erect; bulb c. 3 × 1.6 cm, ovoid, tunics papery, brown, neck to 6 cm long, tunics splitting into narrowly linear segments. Leaves basal and cauline, linear, acuminate, parallel-veined and longitudinally plicate; scabrid on the veins and margins, plant otherwise glabrous; basal leaves 1 or 2, 16.5 – 38 × 0.1 – 0.2 cm; stem leaves 1, 15.5 – 31.2 × 0.1 – 0.4 cm. Inflorescences cymose, 1 – 3 flowered; peduncles 16 – 65 mm long, sulcate; bracts 2 or 3, 26 – 44 × 4 – 6 mm, lanceolate to narrowly elliptic, when dry concolorous with leaves, turning russet-brown and drying out from the tips in fruit, clasping each other at base for up to 11 mm, reddish at the base when fresh for c. 1 cm, apex acuminate, margins translucent; pedicels (20 –) 25 – 35 mm long, filiform; pedicels and peduncles erect so flowers are erect with tepals spreading horizontally; tepals free; outer 25 – 33 × 10 – 14 mm, oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, ascending at base then spreading, dorsally whitish-blue, ventrally blue with a white blotch in the centre and irregular dark blue markings, base 5 – 8 mm long, cuneate and not clawed but weakly differentiated from the rest of the tepal, apex rounded; inner 4 – 6 × 1 – 1.5 mm, oblanceolate, erect or sometimes recurved towards apex, pale blue, apex obtuse to apiculate; filaments united to form an 8 – 11 mm long, erect column; anthers 5 – 7 mm long, narrowly oblong, flat and appressed to each of the 3 style branches; style branches 7 – 8 mm long, lorate in outline with a longitudinal central furrow, bifid at the apex on each side of the furrow, the free parts 3 – 4 mm long, shallowly divided into 2 – 3 concolorous lobed crests which are apically stigmatic; ovary 6 – 9 × 1 – 2 mm, oblongoid-claviform. Fruit and seeds not seen. Figs 2 and 3.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig3_HTML.gif
Fig. 2

Vegetative and floral morphology in Mastigostyla chuquisacensis.A habit and bulb, with an inflorescence; B leaves, inflorescence, bracts and flower; C part of a leaf, showing its plication; D flower, side view, with the outer tepals and ovary removed, showing the inner tepals, anther position relative to the style branches and style branch crests; E intact flower and part of pedicel, side view; F outer tepal; G inner tepal. From Wood et al. 23254 (A, D, E), Wood et al. 22018 (B, C), Wood et al. 23272 (F, G). drawn by juliet beentje.

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig4_HTML.jpg
Fig. 3

Photographs of Mastigostyla chuquisacensis showing its habit and floral morphology. A, BWood et al. 23254; C not linked to a herbarium specimen; D Wood et al. 22018. PHOTOS DARWIN PROJECT 11-010.

Distribution. In Chuquisaca Department, Bolivia (Map 1B). It has only been found on Cerro Chataquila and Cerro Obispo near Sucre.

Specimens Examined. Bolivia. Chuquisaca: Oropeza, Cerro Obispo, fl. 3 April 1994, Wood 8207 (K!, LPB!); Cerro Obispo near Quila-Quila, fl. 27 April 1997, Wood 12033 (K!, LPB!); on E side of Chataquila ridge just above road contouring along mountain [18°57′52″S 65°25′38″W], fl. 30 Jan. 2000, Wood 15897 (K!, LPB!); Capilla de Chataquila en camina de Punilla a Potola [18°59′19″S 65°24′22″W], fl. 29 March 2005, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 22018 (HSB!, K!, LPB!); Cerro Obispo, W of Sucre above Rio Cachimayo [19°08′27″S 65°20′26″W], fl. 27 March 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 23254 (HSB!, K!, LPB!); Cerro Chataquila along trail following ridge top [18°56′25″S 65°25′41″W], fl. 28 March 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 23272 (HSB!, K!, LPB!).

Habitat. A locally very frequent species growing in prepuna vegetation amidst grass in sandy hollows between rocks on sandstone mountain ridges; 3100 – 3800 m.

Conservation Status. Known from two localities at which it is common. Although with a very restricted range, this species is under no obvious threat and is therefore considered to be of Least Concern (LC), although it is horticulturally attractive and might be uprooted for planting in gardens.

Phenology. Flowers during the rainy season from January to April, a longer period than that of Mastigostyla cardenasii and M. torotoroense.

Mastigostyla torotoroensisHuaylla & Wilkinsp. nov. a M. cardenasii et M. chuquisacensi tepalis interioribus patentibus, plus quam dimidio longioribus quam exterioribus (non erectis, brevissimis), antheris inter quemque par ramorum styli dispositis, ramis styli fere ad basin divisis, crista capitata unica discolore instructis, nec ad antheras adpressis neque cristis multis indutis. Typus: Bolivia, Potosí, Charcas, Torotoro, camino al Cañon de Vergel, saliendo de Torotoro, cerca de la entrada del cañon [18°06′07″S, 65°46′47″W], fl. 24 March 2005, Wood, Atahuachi & de la Barra 21952 (holotypus K!; isotypi BOLV!, HSB!, K! (two sheets), LPB!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105281-1

Perennial herb, 17 – 60 cm in height, erect; bulb 2.2 – 3 × 1.2 – 1.5 cm, ovoid or rounded, tunics papery, dark shiny chestnut-brown to very dark brown, neck c. 3 – 6 cm long, of narrowly linear divided tunic segments. Leaves basal and cauline, linear, the apex acuminate, parallel-veined and longitudinally plicate, scabrid on the veins and margins, plant otherwise glabrous; basal leaves usually 1; stem leaves 1 or 2; lamina in both 14 – 44 × 0.1 – 0.25 cm. Inflorescence cymose, 2 – 6 flowered; peduncle 64 – 95 mm long, sulcate; bracts 2, 19 – 28 × 3 – 5 mm, lanceolate, yellow-green to dark green or grey-green, appearing to turn russet-brown in fruit at the apex only, clasping each other at base for up to 8 mm, apex acuminate, margins translucent; pedicels 22 – 35 mm long, filiform, both peduncles and pedicels erect so flowers are erect with both whorls of tepals spreading; perianth 25 – 28 mm in diam., tepals free; outer 13 – 16 × 3 – 7 mm, ovate-elliptic, dark to light blue with a white blotch at the base, sometimes with darker speckling elsewhere, base cuneate, not differentiated at all into a claw and blade, apex obtuse to acute or apiculate; inner tepals 8 – 11 × 2 – 3 cm, oblong-lanceolate, concolorous with outer tepals, apex acute; filaments united to form a 4 – 7 cm long, erect column; anthers 3 – 5 mm long, narrowly oblong, flat or falcate, each between a pair of the 3 style branches; style branches, 3 – 6 mm long, each branch divided (fused at base for at most 1 mm) into filiform arms, the arms 2.5 – 4 mm long, filiform, white to bluish, more pigmented towards the apex, stigmatic at the apex which is capitate and golden-yellow; ovary 6 – 9 × 2 – 6 mm, obovoid, sulcate. Fruit and seeds not seen. Figs 4 and 5.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig5_HTML.gif
Fig. 4

Vegetative and floral morphology in Mastigostyla torotoroensis. A habit and bulb, with an inflorescence; B leaf, inflorescence and bracts; C immature ovary; D part of a leaf, showing its plication; E flower, side view, with the tepals and ovary removed, showing the anther position relative to the filiform style branches with capitate apical stigmas; F intact flower with bracts, side view. From Wood et al. 19126 (A, D), Wood et al. 21952 (B, C), Wood et al. 23214 (E, F). drawn by juliet beentje.

https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig6_HTML.jpg
Fig. 5

Photographs of Mastigostyla torotoroensis showing its habit, floral morphology and variation in tepal shape. AWood et al. 19126; B, CWood et al. 23214, showing variation in tepals in different flowers; D, EWood et al. 21952. (PHOTOS DARWIN PROJECT 11-010).

Distribution. Endemic to Torotoro National Park in Bolivia.

Specimens Examined. Bolivia. Potosí: Charcas, Torotoro, side road towards Cañon el Vergel, [18°07′11″S 65°46′10″W], fl. 26 Feb. 2003, Wood, Atahuachi & Mercado 19216 (BOLV!, K!, LPB!); Torotoro, camino al cañon de Vergel, saliendo de Torotoro cerca de la entrada del cañon [18°06′07″S 65°46′47″W], fl. 24 March 2005, Wood, Atahuachi & De La Barra 21952 (BOLV!, K!, LPB!); Torotoro, by path leading to Cañon del Vergel [18°06′02″S 65°46′27″W], fl. 24 March 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Mercado 23214 (BOLV!, HSB!, K!, LPB!).

Habitat. Locally frequent in grikes between limestone rocks and in calcareous clay between rocks on open stony ridges with scattered low vegetation; 2550 – 2750 m (Map 1B).

Conservation Status. This species is restricted to the Torotoro Nacional Park in Bolivia’s Potosí Department. Although very local in distribution the populations of this species are quite extensive so no immediate threat is obvious and we consider it to be of Least Concern (LC). Since it is one of the botanical jewels of this protected area, regular monitoring is desirable to ensure populations maintain their numbers.

Phenology. Flowers very briefly towards the end of the rainy season centred on the month of March. Visits in both January and May failed to reveal any flowering plants.

Notes.Mastigostyla torotoroensis is a surprisingly variable species in the shape of both outer and inner tepals, to the extent that we believed that there were two different species involved after seeing the oldest two collections of this species. However careful examination of plants in the field in March 2007 demonstrated clearly that the different forms were continuous in their variation. Tepals vary from dark to light blue. The outer tepals vary from ovate, acuminate to obovate, truncate to subemarginate while the inner tepals vary from oblong, acute, much longer than broad to ovate or elliptic, only slightly longer than broad. Some of this variation can be appreciated in Figs 5 and 6. This observation has considerable implications for the taxonomy of the Tigridieae in South America. Many species are only known from the type. In his accounts of Mastigostyla and Cardenanthus, four out of ten species recognised by Foster (1962) in the former genus and seven out of eight species in the latter were only known from the type collections. Clearly single collections make assessment of variation impossible. Given the difficulties of examining dried material of Iridaceae, which has been mentioned earlier, there is a clearly a need for a lot more photographic and herbarium records before species in the Tigridieae can be satisfactorily delimited.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig7_HTML.gif
Fig. 6

Vegetative and floral morphology in Mastigostyla woodii. A habit and bulb, with an inflorescence; B leaf and inflorescence, showing the curvature of the pedicel; C ovary apex, base of claw of outer tepals and inner tepals; D style branch and anther viewed from the side and below, showing the inrolled style branch margin clasping the anther and the style branch crests, of which the anterior (at the anther apex) only appears to be stigmatic; E part of a leaf, showing its plication and the scabrid veins and margins; F intact flower viewed from above; G outer tepal; H flower with tepals and ovary removed leaving the erect column and style branches viewed from above. All from Wood et al. 22554. drawn by juliet beentje.

Mastigostyla torotoroensis is very different in its reproductive morphology from the other three species described here. It is readily distinguished by its spreading inner tepals which are relatively large in comparison to its outer tepals and the styles in which the branches are divided almost to the base into two free, filiform arms, which are stigmatic at the tips. It has an anther between each pair of style branches. All the other species possess lorate style branches, which are divided for at most half of their length and have the anthers appressed to them.

Mastigostyla woodiiHuaylla & Wilkinsp. nov. a M. chuquisacensi Huaylla & Wilkin pedunculis pedicellisque curvatis, floribus itaque patentibus, tepalis ad terram perpendicularibus (in M. chuquisacensi pedunculis pedicellisque erectis), tepalis exterioribus spatulatis, ungue manifeste distinguibile 8 – 13 mm longo et lamina 13 – 19 mm longa instructis (in M. chuquisacensi tepalis oblongis-ellipticis usque lanceolatis, basi cuneata, non unguiculata 5 – 8 mm longa et lamina 20 – 25 mm longa instructis), pagina superiore antherarum ad ramum styli adpressa et marginibus rami styli incurvis ad ramum styli adhaerentibus (in M. chuquisacensi ramo styli plano, non antheras contingenti), paginis stigmaticis principalibus cristae lateralis rami styli prope apicem antherae positis (in M. chuquisacensi paginis stigmaticis principalibus in cristis rami styli terminalibus). Typus: Bolivia, Chuquisaca, Chaunaca, entering by side road along aqueduct [18°59′42″S 65°25′23″W], fl. 31 Jan. 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 22554 (holotypus K!; isotypi HSB!, K!, LPB!).

http://www.ipni.org/urn:lsid:ipni.org:names:77105282-1

Perennial herb to c. 40 cm in height; bulb 1.5 – 1.8 × 1.2 – 1.5 cm, ovoid, tunics papery, brown to dark brown or russet-brown, neck c. 1 – 1.5 cm long. Leaves basal and cauline, linear, acuminate, parallel-veined and longitudinally plicate; scabrid on the veins and margins, plant otherwise glabrous; basal leaves 1 or 2, 28.9 – 41 × 0.2 – 0.25 cm; stem leaves 1, 18 – 35 × 0.15 – 0.25 cm. Inflorescences cymose, 1 – 3-flowered; peduncles 22 – 63 mm long, sulcate, accrescent in fruit; bracts 2, 21 – 35 × 4 – 7 mm; very narrowly elliptic to narrowly lanceolate, concolorous with leaves, appearing to turn russet-brown in fruit at the apex only, clasping each other at the base for up to 10 mm, apex acuminate, margins translucent; pedicels 18 – 25 mm long, filiform, angled; peduncles and/or pedicels curved so flowers are held at c. 45° – 90° to the erect stem; tepals free; outer 21 – 32 mm long, spathulate, spreading, claw and central stripe on blade upper surface white with lax to dense blue blotches, rest of blade blue to blue-purple with darker blotches, narrow basal claw 8 – 13 mm long, apical blade 13 – 19 × 5 – 9.5 mm, oblong-elliptic to obovate, apex rounded to acute, sometimes with a falcate apiculus curved to one side; inner 4.5 – 6 × 1 – 1.5 mm, elliptic to narrowly obovate, erect, uniform light blue, apex acuminate, also often falcate and curved to one side; filaments fused to form a 9 – 10 mm long, erect column, anthers 3 – 4 mm long, narrowly oblong, upper surface appressed to each of the 3 style branches and anther clasped by its inrolled margins; style branches 6 – 10 mm long, lorate in outline but appearing broader towards apex due to inrolled margins towards base, with a central longitudinal furrow, apically bifid more or less to the point above the anther apex, with 2 crests on each branch, shorter lateral crests only appear to be stigmatic; ovary 7 – 10 × 2 – 3 mm long, ellipsoid to ovoid, to 5.5 mm broad in immature fruit; mature fruit and seed not seen. Figs 6 and 7.
https://static-content.springer.com/image/art%3A10.1007%2Fs12225-010-9199-y/MediaObjects/12225_2010_9199_Fig8_HTML.jpg
Fig. 7

Photographs of Mastigostyla woodii showing its habit and floral morphology. A, C, DWood et al. 22554; BWood et al. 23314 (PHOTOS DARWIN PROJECT 11-010).

Distribution. Only known from Chaunaca and El Palmar in Chuquisaca Department (Map 1B).

Specimens Examined. Bolivia. Chuquisaca: Zudañez, ANMI El Palmar, along trail climbing from Thuruthuru towards El Palmar, above Rio Missiones [18°42′07″S 64°53′35″W], fl. 31 March 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 23314 (HSB!, K!, LPB!); Chaunaca, entering by side road along aqueduct [18°59′42″S 65°25′23″W], fl. 31 Jan. 2007, Wood, Huaylla & Gutiérrez 22554 (HSB!, K!, LPB!).

Habitat. At Chaunaca found in the bottom of a side valley at the base of sandstone ridges of Cerro Chataquila and not on the ridge itself. Thus its habitat is more humid and less exposed than that of Mastigostyla chuquisacensis. At El Palmar it is in seasonally moist open grassy areas in Parajubaea torallyi forest; 2600 – 3100 m.

Conservation Status. Data Deficient (DD). Known from just two localities in Chuquisaca Province, one of which lies within the protected area of the A.N.M.I. El Palmar. Further populations should be sought to enable an assessment to be made.

Phenology. Flowering in January and March in the rainy season.

Etymology. The epithet woodii is in honour of the British botanist John R. I. Wood, the collector of both specimens of this species, to recognise his role in training young Bolivian botanists and his dedication to the plant biodiversity of Bolivia.

Notes.Mastigostyla woodii can be recognised by the curved nature of the peduncle and/or pedicel, which means that its flower is borne more or less horizontally (the tepals perpendicular to the ground rather than parallel to it). Its outer tepals are spathulate with a clearly differentiated, 8 – 13 mm long claw and 13 – 19 mm long blade, tepals oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, unlike M. chuquisacensis in which the outer tepals are oblong-elliptic to oblanceolate, the base is 5 – 8 mm long and cuneate, not differentiated into a claw, and the blade 20 – 25 mm long. The anthers of M. woodii are unique in that their upper surface is appressed to the style branch and clasped by inrolled style branch margins. Its stigmatic surfaces are on the lateral crest of each style branch near the anther apex, not terminal on the crests of the style branch as in M. chuquisacensis.

Key to the Species of Mastigostyla in Bolivia

  • 1. Inner tepals 8 – 11 mm long, spreading, style branches divided (fused at most for 1 mm at base) into 2 filiform arms which have capitate apical stigmas, with an anther between each pair of style branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. torotoroensis

    Inner tepals not more than 7 mm long, usually erect at least at base, style branches divided for not more than half their length, usually lorate in outline with lobed apical and/or lateral stigmatic crests, anthers appressed to style branches . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2

  • 2. Outer tepals with a narrow, (8 –) 10 – 12 mm long basal claw, blade 19 – 34 × 12 – 21 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. cardenasii

    Outer tepals not possessing a narrow claw (sometimes with a 5 – 8 mm long cuneate base) or if clawed blade not more than 19 × 10 mm . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3

  • 3. Inner tepals ovate and c. 5.5 × 2.5 mm, style branches c. 14 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .M. potosina

    Inner tepals linear to linear-lanceolate, elliptic, narrowly obovate or lanceolate, 0.45 – 7 × 0.75 – 1.5 mm, style branches not more than 10 mm long . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 4

  • 4. Outer tepals with a 5 – 8 mm long cuneate base, style branches 7 – 8 mm long, apically divided for 3 – 4 mm, margins not inrolled and clasping anther . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. chuquisacensis

    Outer tepals with a narrow basal claw at least 8 mm long, style branches either divided for not more than 2 mm at the apex or if more deeply divided anther clasped by inrolled style branch margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 5

  • 5. Outer tepals 21 – 32 mm long, column 9 – 10 mm long, anther clasped by inrolled style branch margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. woodii

    Outer tepals c. 18 mm long, column c. 6 mm long, anther not clasped by inrolled style branch margins . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . M. brevicaulis

Acknowledgements

The authors would like to thank the following herbaria for the loan of specimens on which this study is based: BOLV, F, GH, HSB, LPB, MO, NY, US and USZ. We would also like to thank John Wood for help with Latin and Spanish translation and in assembling the manuscript. Marcela Celis and an anonymous referee provided review comments which helped to improve the clarity of this paper. We are grateful to Margoth Atahuachi and Magaly Mercado for the use of photographs taken during the Darwin Project, Anna Haigh for assistance at Kew and in the field and Juliet Beentje for Figs 2 and 4 and 6. Hibert Huaylla would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Darwin Initiative (project no. 11-010) of the Department for the Environment, Food and Rural Affairs of the British Government which made possible his study of Iridaceae both in Bolivia and in the United Kingdom.

Copyright information

© The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew 2010