, Volume 27, Issue 8, pp 1068-1078,
Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.
Date: 14 Jul 2012

Interventions to Improve Decision Making and Reduce Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the Management of Prostate Cancer: A Systematic Review



Ethnic minorities are disproportionately impacted by prostate cancer (PCa) and are at risk for not receiving informed decision making (IDM). We conducted a systematic literature review on interventions to improve: (1) IDM about PCa in screening-eligible minority men, and (2) quality of life (QOL) in minority PCa survivors.


MeSH headings for PCa, ethnic minorities, and interventions were searched in MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, CINAHL, and PsycINFO.


We identified U.S.-based, English-language articles (1985 – 2010) on interventions to improve PCa IDM and QOL that included 50 % or more minority patients or analyses stratified by race/ethnicity.


Articles (n = 19) were evaluated and scored for quality using a Downs and Black (DB) system. Interventions were organized by those enhancing 1) IDM about PCa screening and 2) improving QOL and symptom among PCa survivors. Outcomes were reported by intervention type (educational seminar, printed material, telephone-based, video and web-based).


Fourteen studies evaluated interventions for enhancing IDM about PCa screening and five evaluated programs to improve outcomes for PCa survivors. Knowledge scores were statistically significantly increased in 12 of 13 screening studies that measured knowledge, with ranges of effect varying across intervention types: educational programs (13 % – 48 % increase), print (11 % – 18 %), videotape/DVD (16 %), and web-based (7 % – 20 %). In the final screening study, an intervention to improve decision-making about screening increased decisional self-efficacy by 9 %. Five cognitive-behavioral interventions improved QOL among minority men being treated for localized PCa through enhancing problem solving and coping skills.


Weak study designs, small sample sizes, selection biases, and variation in follow-up intervals across studies.


Educational programs were the most effective intervention for improving knowledge among screening-eligible minority men. Cognitive behavioral strategies improved QOL for minority men treated for localized PCa.