HSS Journal

, Volume 6, Issue 1, pp 85-94

First online:

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor: An Essential Component of Angiogenesis and Fracture Healing

  • Brandon BeamerAffiliated withWeill Medical College of Cornell University Email author 
  • , Carolyn HettrichAffiliated withHospital for Special Surgery
  • , Joseph LaneAffiliated withHospital for Special Surgery

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access


Fractures require adequate stability and blood supply to heal. The vascular supply to long bones is compromised in a fracture, and the ability to heal hinges on the ability of new blood vessels to proliferate from surrounding vessels in a process known as angiogenesis. This process is largely driven by the growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), whose levels are increased locally and systemically during fracture healing. VEGF is involved in many steps throughout the fracture healing cascade, from initially being concentrated in fracture hematoma, to the promotion of bone turnover during the final remodeling phase. This article reviews the current literature surrounding the role of VEGF and other growth factors in reestablishing vascular supply to fractured bone, as well as medications and surgical techniques that may inhibit this process.


VEGF growth factor fracture angiogenesis non-union blood supply vascular endothelial growth factor fracture healing