Research Paper

Journal of Happiness Studies

, Volume 14, Issue 1, pp 169-184

First online:

Comparing Three Methods to Measure a Balanced Time Perspective: The Relationship Between a Balanced Time Perspective and Subjective Well-Being

  • Jia Wei ZhangAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, San Francisco State UniversityDepartment of Psychology, University of California
  • , Ryan T. HowellAffiliated withDepartment of Psychology, San Francisco State University Email author 
  • , Maciej StolarskiAffiliated withFaculty of Psychology, University of Warsaw

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The goals of this study were to determine the relations between having a balanced time perspective (BTP) with various measures of subjective well-being (SWB) and to test how various operationalizations of a BTP might impact the relation between having a BTP and SWB. We operationalized a balanced time perspective using: (a) Drake et al.’s Time Soc 17(1):47–61, (2008) cut-off-point method, (b) Boniwell et al.’s J Posit Psychol 5(1):24–40, (2010) suggestion of using a hierarchical cluster analysis, and (c) a deviation from a balanced time perspective (DBTP; Stolarski et al. Time Soc, 2011). The results demonstrated that having a BTP is related to increased satisfaction with life, happiness, positive affect, psychological need satisfaction, self-determination, vitality, and gratitude as well as decreased negative affect. Also, the DBTP was the best predictor of SWB. We discuss why individuals with a BTP are likely to be happier in life.


Time perspectives Well-being Subjective time Happiness Balanced time perspective