Article

Genetica

, Volume 141, Issue 7, pp 347-358

Molecular identification of a cryptic species in the Amazonian predatory catfish genus Pseudoplatystoma (Bleeker, 1962) from Peru

  • Carmen García-DávilaAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Laboratorio de Biología y Genética Molecular (LBGM), Programa para el Uso y Conservación del Agua y sus Recursos (AQUAREC), Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP)
  • , Fabrice DuponchelleAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (UMR 226-ISEM), Université Montpellier 2
  • , Diana Castro-RuizAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Laboratorio de Biología y Genética Molecular (LBGM), Programa para el Uso y Conservación del Agua y sus Recursos (AQUAREC), Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP)
  • , José VillacortaAffiliated withLaboratorio de Biología y Genética Molecular (LBGM), Programa para el Uso y Conservación del Agua y sus Recursos (AQUAREC), Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP)
  • , Sophie QuérouilAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (UMR 226-ISEM), Université Montpellier 2
  • , Werner Chota-MacuyamaAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Laboratorio de Biología y Genética Molecular (LBGM), Programa para el Uso y Conservación del Agua y sus Recursos (AQUAREC), Instituto de Investigaciones de la Amazonía Peruana (IIAP)
  • , Jesus NúñezAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (UMR 226-ISEM), Université Montpellier 2
  • , Uwe RömerAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Department of Geo-Sciences Institute for Biogeography, University of Trier
  • , Fernando Carvajal-VallejosAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Unidad de Limnología y Recursos Acuáticos, Universidad Mayor San SimónAsociación FAUNAGUA
    • , Jean-François RennoAffiliated withLaboratoire Mixte International-Evolution et Domestication de l’Ichtyofaune Amazonienne (LMI-EDIA)Institut de Recherche pour le Développement (IRD), Institut des Sciences de l’Evolution de Montpellier (UMR 226-ISEM), Université Montpellier 2 Email author 

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Abstract

Pseudoplatystoma species are highly prized South American Pimelodid migratory catfishes. Until recently, their taxonomy was not clearly established, with discrepancies between morphological and molecular analyses. Here, Pseudoplatystoma species from the Peruvian Amazon were characterized at the molecular level from a sample representing the observed range of their color pattern variations in the study area. Analyses were performed using seven microsatellite loci for 103 specimens and, for part of them (52), using sequences of two regions of their mitochondrial genome [Cytochrome Oxidase subunit I (COI) and Control Region (CR)]. Factorial correspondence analysis and assignment tests based on microsatellite polymorphism showed that the specimens originally identified as P. punctifer belonged to two different gene pools highly differentiated from P. tigrinum. Morphological examination identified two different morphotypes (with and without black stripes), suggesting the existence of two distinct taxa within P. punctifer. This result was corroborated by the ML tree based on CR sequences, where all individuals but four clustered in a similar way as in the FCA and Bayesian assignment tests. For these four individuals, mitochondrial introgression or retention of ancestral polymorphism was likely. In contrast, the ML tree based on COI sequences showed that reciprocal monophyly was not yet achieved for this marker for the two P. punctifer taxa. The existence of three sympatric species of Pseudoplatystoma in the Peruvian Amazon is discussed in relation to their molecular characteristics, color patterns and ecology. Evolutionary scenarios regarding their divergence are hypothesized.

Keywords

Microsatellites Control Region Barcoding Migratory catfish