Austin, J. (2001). Prisoner reentry: current trends, practices, and issues. Crime & Delinquency, 47
Beck, A. J. (2000). Prisoners in 1999. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
Beckett, K., & Western, B. (2001). Governing social marginality: welfare, incarceration, and the transformation of state policy. Punishment and Society, 3
Beckett, K. (1997). Making crime pay: law and order in contemporary American politics. New York: Oxford University Press.
Bluestone, B. (1970). The tripartite economy: labor markets and the working poor. Poverty and Human Resources, 5, 15–35.
Braman, D. (2004). Doing time on the outside: incarceration and family life in urban America. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Brooks-Gunn, J., Duncan, G. J., Klebanov, P. K., & Naomi Sealand, N. (1993). Do neighborhoods influence child and adolescent development? The American Journal of Sociology, 99
Bursik, R. J., Jr., & Grasmick, H. G. (1993). Neighborhoods and crime: the dimensions of effective community control. New York: Lexington Books.
Christie, N. (1993). Crime control as industry: toward gulags, western style? New York: Routledge.
Clear, T. R. (1996). Backfire: when incarceration causes crime. The unintended consequences of incarceration. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.
Clear, T. R. (2003). The problem with ‘addition by subtraction’: the prison-crime relationship in low income communities. In M. Mauer & M. Chesney-Lind (Eds.), Invisible punishment: the collateral consequences of mass imprisonment (pp. 181–194). New York: The New Press.
Clear, T. R. (2007). Imprisoning communities: how mass incarceration makes disadvantaged neighborhoods worse
. New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRef
Clear, T. R., & Rose, D. R. (2003). Individual sentencing practices and aggregate social problems. In D. F. Hawkins, S. L. Myers, & R. N. Stone (Eds.), Crime, control and social justice: the delicate balance (pp. 27–52). Westport: Greenwood.
Clear, T. R., Rose, D. R., & Ryder, J. A. (2001). Incarceration and community: the problem of removing and returning offenders. Crime & Delinquency, 47
Clear, T. R., Rose, D. R., Waring, E., & Scully, K. (2003). Coercive mobility and crime: a preliminary examination of concentrated incarceration and social disorganization. Justice Quarterly, 20
Cohen, J. (1983). Incapacitation as a strategy for crime control: possibilities and pitfalls. In M. Tonry & N. Morris (Eds.), Crime and justice: a review of research (Vol. 5, pp. 1–84). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Cohen, L. E., & Felson, M. (1979). Social change and crime rate trends: a routine activities approach. American Sociological Review, 44
Crutchfield, R. D. (1989). Labor stratification and violent crime. Social Forces, 68, 489–512.
Crutchfield, R. D., Glusker, A., & Bridges, G. S. (1999). A tale of three cities: labor markets and homicide. Sociological Focus, 32, 65–83.
Crutchfield, R. D., Matsueda, R. L., & Drakulich, K. (2006). Race, labor markets, and neighborhood violence. In R. D. Peterson, L. J. Krivo, & J. Hagan (Eds.), The many colors of crime: inequalities of race, ethnicity, and crime in America (pp. 199–220). New York: New York University Press.
Fagan, J., West, V., & Holland, J. (2003). Reciprocal effects of crime and incarceration in New York City neighborhoods. Fordham Urban Law Journal, 30, 1551–1601.
Gilliard, D. K. (1993). Prisoners in 1992. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
Gottfredson, M. R., & Hindelang, M. J. (1977). A consideration of telescoping and memory decay biases in victimization surveys. Journal of Criminal Justice, 5
Hagan, J., & Coleman, J. P. (2001). Returning captives of the American war on drugs: issues of community and family reentry. Crime & Delinquency, 47
Harris, A., Evans, H., & Beckett, K. (2010). Drawing blood from stones: legal debt and social inequality in the contemporary United States. The American Journal of Sociology, 155
Hipp, J. R., & Yates, D. K. (2009). Do returning parolees affect neighborhood crime? A case study of Sacramento. Criminology, 47
Hirschi, T. (1969). Causes of delinquency. Berkeley: University of California Press.
Huebner, B. M. (2005). The effect of incarceration on marriage and work over the life course. Justice Quarterly, 22
Ingram, J. R. (2007). The effect of neighborhood characteristics on traffic citation practices of the police. Police Quarterly, 10
Kasarda, J. D., & Janowitz, M. (1974). Community attachment in mass society. American Sociological Review, 39
Kornhauser, R. R. (1978). Social sources of delinquency. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Levine, J. P. (1976). The potential for crime overreporting in criminal victimization surveys. Criminology, 14
Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2000). Prison use and social control. In J. Horney, R. Peterson, D. MacKenzie, J. Martin, & D. Rosenbaum (Eds.), Criminal justice 2000 (Vol. 3). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice.
Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2001). Prisoner reentry in perspective. Urban institute justice policy center crime policy report. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2004). Assessing the effects of mass incarceration on informal social control in communities. Criminology & Public Policy, 3
Lynch, J. P., & Sabol, W. J. (2004). Effects of incarceration on informal social control in communities. In M. Pattillo, D. Weiman, & B. Western (Eds.), Imprisoning America: the social effects of mass incarceration (pp. 135–164). New York: Russell Sage.
Lynch, J. P., Sabol, W. J., Planty, M., & Shelley, M. (2001). Crime, coercion, and community: the effects of arrest and incarceration policies on informal social control in neighborhoods. Report to the national institute of justice. Washington, DC: Urban Institute Justice Policy Center.
Massey, D. S. (1996). The age of extremes: concentrated affluence and poverty in the twenty-first century. Demography, 33
Massey, D. S., & Denton, N. A. (1993). American apartheid: segregation and the making of the underclass. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.
Matsueda, R. L., Crutchfield, R. D., Guest, A. M., & Kubrin, C. E. (2003). Seattle neighborhoods and crime survey [Computer File].
Merton, R. (1938). Social structure and anomie. American Sociological Review, 3
Miethe, T. D. (1991). Testing theories of criminality and victimization in Seattle, 1960–1990 [Computer File]. 2nd ICPSR version. Blacksburg, VA: Virginia Polytechnic Institute [producer], 1991. Ann Arbor, MI: Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], 1998.
Morenoff, J. D., Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2001). Neighborhood inequality, collective efficacy, and the spatial dynamics of urban violence. Criminology, 39
Mumola, C. J., & Beck, A. J. (1997). Prisoners in 1996. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
Nagin, D. S. (1998). Criminal deterrence research at the outset of the twenty-first century. Crime and Justice: A Review of Research, 23
Osgood, D. W. (2000). Poisson-based regression analysis of aggregate crime rates. Journal of Quantitative Criminology, 16
Pager, D., & Quillian, L. (2005). Walking the talk? What employers say versus what they do. American Sociological Review, 70
Pager, D., Bonikowski, B., & Western, B. (2009). Discrimination in a low wage labor market: a field experiment. American Sociological Review, 74
Pager, D. (2003). The mark of a criminal record. The American Journal of Sociology, 108
Pager, D. (2007). Marked: race, crime, and finding work in an era of mass incarceration. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Petersilia, J. (1999). Parole and prisoner reentry in the United States. Crime & Justice, 26
Petersilia, J. (2003). When prisoners come home: parole and prisoner reentry. New York: Oxford University Press.
Peterson, R. D., & Krivo, L. J. (2010). Divergent social worlds: neighborhood crime and the racial-spatial divide. New York: Russell Sage.
Petrocelli, M., Piquero, A., & Smith, M. (2003). Conflict theory and racial profiling: an empirical analysis of police traffic stop data. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31
Pettit, B., & Western, B. (2004). Mass imprisonment and the life course: race and class inequality in U.S. incarceration. American Sociological Review, 69
Piore, M. J. (1970). The dual labor market: theory and implications. In S. H. Beer & R. E. Barringer (Eds.), The state and the poor (pp. 55–59). Cambridge: Winthrop.
Piquero, A. R., West, V., Fagan, J., & Holland, J. (2006). Neighborhood, race, and the economic consequences of incarceration in New York City, 1985–1996. In R. D. Peterson, L. J. Krivo, & J. Hagan (Eds.), The many colors of crime: inequalities of race, ethnicity, and crime in America (pp. 256–273). New York: New York University Press.
Provine, D. M. (2007). Unequal under law: race in the war on drugs. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Quillian, L., & Pager, D. (2001). Black neighbors, higher crime? The role of racial stereotypes in evaluations of neighborhood crime. The American Journal of Sociology, 107
Raudenbush, S. W., & Bryk, A. S. (2002). Hierarchical linear models: applications and data analysis methods (2nd ed.). Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Renaur, B. C., Cunningham, W. C., Feyerherm, B., O’Connor, T., & Bellatty, P. (2006). Tipping the scales of justice: the effect of overincarceration on neighborhood violence. Criminal Justice Policy Review, 17
Richards, S. C., & Jones, R. S. (2004). Beating the perpetual incarceration machine: overcoming structural impediments to re-entry. In S. Maruna & R. Immarigeon (Eds.), After crime and punishment: pathways to offender reintegration (pp. 201–232). London: Willan Publishing.
Rose, D., & Clear, T. R. (2004). Incarceration, reentry and social capital: social networks in the balance. In J. Travis & M. Waul (Eds.), Prisoners once removed: the impact of incarceration and reentry on children, families and communities (pp. 313–343). Washington, DC: Urban Institute Press.
Rose, D. R., & Clear, T. R. (1998). Incarceration, social capital, and crime: implications for social disorganization theory. Criminology, 36
Rosich, K. J. (2007). Race, ethnicity, and the criminal justice system. Washington, DC: American Sociological Association.
Sabol, W. J., & Lynch, J. P. (2003). Assessing the longer-run consequences of incarceration: effects on families and employment. In D. F. Hawkins, S. L. Myers Jr., & R. N. Stone (Eds.), Crime control and social justice: the delicate balance. Westport: Greenwood Press.
Sabol, W. J., West, H. C., & Cooper, M. (2010). Prisoners in 2008. Washington, DC: Bureau of Justice Statistics, U.S. Department of Justice.
Sampson, R. J. (1987). Urban black violence: the effect of male joblessness and family disruption. The American Journal of Sociology, 93
Sampson, R. J., & Laub, J. H. (1993). Crime in the making: pathways and turning points through life. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.
Sampson, R. J., & Wilson, W. J. (1995). Race, crime and urban inequality. In J. Hagan & R. Peterson (Eds.), Crime and inequality. Stanford: Stanford University Press.
Sampson, R. J., & Raudenbush, S. W. (2004). Seeing disorder: neighborhood stigma and the social construction of “broken windows.”. Social Psychology Quarterly, 67
Sampson, R. J., Morenoff, J. D., & Earls, F. (1999). Beyond social capital: spatial dynamics of collective efficacy for children. American Sociological Review, 64
Sampson, R. J., Raudenbush, S. W., & Earls, F. (1997). Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science, 277
Seiter, R. P., & Kadela, K. R. (2003). Prisoner reentry: what works, what does not, and what is promising. Crime & Delinquency, 49
Simon, J. (2000). Miami: governing the city through crime. In M. Polese & R. Stren (Eds.), The social sustainability of cities: diversity and the management of change. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.
Spelman, W. (2000). What recent studies do (and don’t) tell us about imprisonment and crime. Crime and justice: A review of research, 27, 419–494.
Sutherland, E. H. (1947). Principles of criminology (4th ed.). Philadelphia: Lippincott.
Travis, J., Solomon, A. L., & Waul, M. (2001). From prison to home: the dimensions and consequences of prisoner reentry. Urban institute justice policy center crime policy report. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.
Visher, C. A., & Travis, J. (2003). Transitions from prison to community: understanding individual pathways. Annual Review of Sociology, 29
Wacquant, L. (2003). America’s new ‘peculiar institution:’ on the prison as surrogate ghetto. In T. G. Blomberg & S. Cohen (Eds.), Punishment and social control (2dth ed., pp. 471–482). New York: Aldine de Gruyter.
Watts, H., & Nightingale, D. S. (1996). Adding it up: the economic impact of incarceration on individuals, families, and communities. The unintended consequences of incarceration. New York: Vera Institute of Justice.
Western, B. (2002). The impact of incarceration on wage mobility and inequality. American Sociological Review, 67
Western, B. (2006). Punishment and inequality in America. New York: Russell Sage.
Wilson, W. J. (1987). The truly disadvantaged: the inner city, the underclass, and public policy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.