Original Paper

Cancer Causes & Control

, Volume 17, Issue 2, pp 169-180

Dietary Phytoestrogen, Serum Enterolactone and Risk of Prostate Cancer: The Cancer Prostate Sweden Study (Sweden)

  • Maria HedelinAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet Email author 
  • , Åsa KlintAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet
  • , Ellen T. ChangAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet
  • , Rino BelloccoAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet
  • , Jan-Erik JohanssonAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, Örebro University Hospital and Center for Assessment of Medical Technology
  • , Swen-Olof AnderssonAffiliated withDepartment of Urology, Örebro University Hospital and Center for Assessment of Medical Technology
  • , Satu-Maarit HeinonenAffiliated withInstitute for Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Cancer, Folkhälsan Research Center and Division of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki
  • , Herman AdlercreutzAffiliated withInstitute for Preventive Medicine, Nutrition and Cancer, Folkhälsan Research Center and Division of Clinical Chemistry, University of Helsinki
  • , Hans-Olov AdamiAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet
    • , Henrik GrönbergAffiliated withDepartment of Radiation Sciences/Oncology, Umeå University
    • , Katarina Augustsson BälterAffiliated withDepartment of Medical Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Karolinska Institutet

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Abstract

Objective

Based on evidence that phytoestrogens may protect against prostate cancer, we evaluated the associations between serum enterolactone concentration or dietary phytoestrogen intake and risk of prostate cancer.

Methods

In our Swedish population-based case-control study, questionnaire-data were available for 1,499 prostate cancer cases and 1,130 controls, with serum enterolactone levels in a sub-group of 209 cases and 214 controls. Unconditional logistic regression was performed to estimate multivariate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations with risk of prostate cancer.

Results

High intake of food items rich in phytoestrogens was associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The OR comparing the highest to the lowest quartile of intake was 0.74 (95% CI: 0.57–0.95; p-value for trend: 0.01). In contrast, we found no association between dietary intake of total or individual lignans or isoflavonoids and risk of prostate cancer. Intermediate serum levels of enterolactone were associated with a decreased risk of prostate cancer. The ORs comparing increasing quartiles of serum enterolactone concentration to the lowest quartile were, respectively, 0.28 (95% CI: 0.15–0.55), 0.63 (95% CI: 0.35–1.14) and 0.74 (95% CI: 0.41–1.32).

Conclusions

Our results support the hypothesis that certain foods high in phytoestrogens are associated with a lower risk of prostate cancer.

Keywords

Diet Enterolactone Epidemiology Lignans Phytoestrogen Prostate cancer