Original Article

Lasers in Medical Science

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 607-614

Sensitivity of A-549 human lung cancer cells to nanoporous zinc oxide conjugated with Photofrin

  • Muhammad Fakhar-e-AlamAffiliated withDepartment of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping UniversityPakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences
  • , Syed Muhammad Usman AliAffiliated withDepartment of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping UniversityDepartment of Electronic Engineering, NED University of Engineering and Technology Email author 
  • , Zafar Hussain IbupotoAffiliated withDepartment of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University
  • , Khun KimleangAffiliated withDepartment of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University
  • , M. AtifAffiliated withLaser Diagnosis of Cancer, Physics and Astronomy Department, College of Science, King Saud UniversityNational Institute of Laser and Optronics
  • , Muhammad KashifAffiliated withNano Biochip Research Group, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • , Foo Kai LoongAffiliated withNano Biochip Research Group, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • , Uda HashimAffiliated withNano Biochip Research Group, Institute of Nano Electronic Engineering (INEE), University Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP)
  • , Magnus WillanderAffiliated withDepartment of Science and Technology, Campus Norrköping, Linköping University

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Abstract

In the present study, we demonstrated the use of nanoporous zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) in photodynamic therapy. The ZnO NPs structure possesses a high surface to volume ratio due to its porosity and ZnO NPs can be used as an efficient photosensitizer carrier system. We were able to grow ZnO NPs on the tip of borosilicate glass capillaries (0.5 μm diameter) and conjugated this with Photofrin for efficient intracellular drug delivery. The ZnO NPs on the capillary tip could be excited intracellularly with 240 nm UV light, and the resultant 625 nm red light emitted in the presence of Photofrin activated a chemical reaction that produced reactive oxygen species (ROS). The procedure was tested in A-549 cells and led to cell death within a few minutes. The morphological changes in necrosed cells were examined by microscopy. The viability of control and treated A-549 cells with the optimum dose of UV/visible light was assessed using the MTT assay, and ROS were detected using a fluorescence microscopy procedure.

Keywords

Lung cancer (A-549) cells MTT assay Photofrin Cell viability Nanoporous zinc oxide (ZnO NPs) Reactive oxygen species (ROS) Photodynamic therapy (PDT)