An allostratigraphic approach to subdivide fine-grained sediments for urban planning
Fine-grained sediments in southern Finland were deposited during the retreat of the continental Fennoscandian ice-sheet at around 13,000 cal BP, leaving subsequent ice-contact deposits and postglacial lake and, finally, the modern brackish water Baltic Sea basin (BSB). As a result of the strong glacioisostatic land uplift of the region, these sediments today lie above sea-level in coastal Finland. The recent expansion of cities to locations where superficial sediments are more challenging for construction purposes has increased the need for comprehensive understanding of the properties and geometry of these fine-grained superficial deposits. Commonly used site-specific lithostratigraphical characteristics of clayey deposits run the risk of ambiguous correlation between sites because of different types of postglacial depositional settings. The present study applies an allostratigraphical approach to classify late- and postglacial clayey deposits using examples from four sedimentary basins in the vicinity of the city of Espoo along the southern coast of Finland. This entails a reinterpretation of 17 core logs collected during the period 2006–2009 and reported in earlier studies, combined with examination of five new cores collected in 2016 coupled with borehole measurements of resistivity-temperature and electrical resistivity tomography (ERT). Physical proxies and sediment characteristics demonstrate that grey postglacial lacustrine silty (Ancylus Lake) clay is truncated at the top by an undulating erosional surface (unconformity), which is covered by a silt to sand layer a few centimetres thick that has a gradual-bioturbated upper contact to the greenish-grey brackish water (Litorina Sea) mud. Sediments above and below the unconformity are intensely bioturbated, and black mottling of Fe-monosulphide is observed in the brackish water mud. Evidently, this unconformity is of high engineering-geological significance because the organic-rich brackish water mud has a poorer bearing capacity and higher abundance of sulphide minerals that form sulphuric acid upon oxidation. It is demonstrated that this unconformity is spatially well recognised and provides a key stratigraphic marker for wider and more accurate comparison between sites with fine-grained deposits in the Helsinki metropolitan area and potentially in other urban areas in the northern Baltic Sea region.