Diabetologia

, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 244–254

Sleep-time BP: prognostic marker of type 2 diabetes and therapeutic target for prevention

Authors

    • Bioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. TelecomunicaciónUniversity of Vigo
  • Diana E. Ayala
    • Bioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. TelecomunicaciónUniversity of Vigo
  • Artemio Mojón
    • Bioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. TelecomunicaciónUniversity of Vigo
  • José R. Fernández
    • Bioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. TelecomunicaciónUniversity of Vigo
Article

DOI: 10.1007/s00125-015-3748-8

Cite this article as:
Hermida, R.C., Ayala, D.E., Mojón, A. et al. Diabetologia (2016) 59: 244. doi:10.1007/s00125-015-3748-8

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

We investigated the prognostic value of clinic and ambulatory BP (ABP) to predict new-onset diabetes and whether risk reduction is related to the progressive decrease of clinic BP or awake or asleep ABP.

Methods

We prospectively evaluated 2,656 individuals without diabetes, 1,292 men and 1,364 women, 50.6 ± 14.3 years of age, with baseline BP ranging from normotension to hypertension according to ABP criteria. At baseline and annually (more frequently if hypertension treatment was adjusted based on ABP) thereafter, ABP and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) were simultaneously monitored for 48 h to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means.

Results

During a 5.9-year median follow-up, 190 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The asleep systolic ABP mean was the most significant predictor of new-onset diabetes in a Cox proportional-hazard model adjusted for age, waist circumference, glucose, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension treatment. Daytime clinic BP and awake or 48 h ABP mean had no predictive value when corrected by the asleep ABP mean. Analyses of BP changes during follow-up revealed a 30% reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes per 1-SD decrease in asleep systolic ABP mean, independent of changes in clinic BP or awake or 48 h ABP means.

Conclusions/interpretation

Sleep-time BP is a highly significant independent prognostic marker for new-onset diabetes. Alteration in sleep-time BP regulation seems to precede, rather than follow, the development of new-onset diabetes. Most important, lowering asleep BP, a novel therapeutic target requiring ABP evaluation, could be a significant method for reducing new-onset diabetes risk.

Keywords

Ambulatory blood pressure New-onset diabetes Sleep-time blood pressure

Abbreviations

ABP

Ambulatory BP

ABPM

Ambulatory BP monitoring

CKD

Chronic kidney disease

CKD-EPI

CKD Epidemiology Collaboration

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

DBP

Diastolic BP

MAPEC

Monitorización Ambulatoria para Predicción de Eventos Cardiovasculares

PP

Pulse pressure

SBP

Systolic BP

Supplementary material

125_2015_3748_MOESM1_ESM.pdf (55 kb)
ESM Methods (PDF 55 kb)
125_2015_3748_MOESM2_ESM.pdf (76 kb)
ESM Table 1 (PDF 76 kb)

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2015