Article

Diabetologia

, Volume 59, Issue 2, pp 244-254

First online:

Sleep-time BP: prognostic marker of type 2 diabetes and therapeutic target for prevention

  • Ramón C. HermidaAffiliated withBioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. Telecomunicación, University of Vigo Email author 
  • , Diana E. AyalaAffiliated withBioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. Telecomunicación, University of Vigo
  • , Artemio MojónAffiliated withBioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. Telecomunicación, University of Vigo
  • , José R. FernándezAffiliated withBioengineering and Chronobiology Laboratories, E.I. Telecomunicación, University of Vigo

Rent the article at a discount

Rent now

* Final gross prices may vary according to local VAT.

Get Access

Abstract

Aims/hypothesis

We investigated the prognostic value of clinic and ambulatory BP (ABP) to predict new-onset diabetes and whether risk reduction is related to the progressive decrease of clinic BP or awake or asleep ABP.

Methods

We prospectively evaluated 2,656 individuals without diabetes, 1,292 men and 1,364 women, 50.6 ± 14.3 years of age, with baseline BP ranging from normotension to hypertension according to ABP criteria. At baseline and annually (more frequently if hypertension treatment was adjusted based on ABP) thereafter, ABP and physical activity (wrist actigraphy) were simultaneously monitored for 48 h to accurately derive the awake and asleep BP means.

Results

During a 5.9-year median follow-up, 190 participants developed type 2 diabetes. The asleep systolic ABP mean was the most significant predictor of new-onset diabetes in a Cox proportional-hazard model adjusted for age, waist circumference, glucose, chronic kidney disease (CKD) and hypertension treatment. Daytime clinic BP and awake or 48 h ABP mean had no predictive value when corrected by the asleep ABP mean. Analyses of BP changes during follow-up revealed a 30% reduction in the risk of new-onset diabetes per 1-SD decrease in asleep systolic ABP mean, independent of changes in clinic BP or awake or 48 h ABP means.

Conclusions/interpretation

Sleep-time BP is a highly significant independent prognostic marker for new-onset diabetes. Alteration in sleep-time BP regulation seems to precede, rather than follow, the development of new-onset diabetes. Most important, lowering asleep BP, a novel therapeutic target requiring ABP evaluation, could be a significant method for reducing new-onset diabetes risk.

Keywords

Ambulatory blood pressure New-onset diabetes Sleep-time blood pressure