Review Article

Agronomy for Sustainable Development

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 651-662

First online:

Feeding the world: genetically modified crops versus agricultural biodiversity

  • Sven-Erik JacobsenAffiliated withDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen Email author 
  • , Marten SørensenAffiliated withDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen
  • , Søren Marcus PedersenAffiliated withInstitute of Food and Resource Economics, University of Copenhagen
  • , Jacob WeinerAffiliated withDepartment of Plant and Environmental Sciences, University of Copenhagen

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The growing demand for food poses major challenges to humankind. We have to safeguard both biodiversity and arable land for future agricultural food production, and we need to protect genetic diversity to safeguard ecosystem resilience. We must produce more food with less input, while deploying every effort to minimize risk. Agricultural sustainability is no longer optional but mandatory. There is still an on-going debate among researchers and in the media on the best strategy to keep pace with global population growth and increasing food demand. One strategy favors the use of genetically modified (GM) crops, while another strategy focuses on agricultural biodiversity. Here, we discuss two obstacles to sustainable agriculture solutions. The first obstacle is the claim that genetically modified crops are necessary if we are to secure food production within the next decades. This claim has no scientific support, but is rather a reflection of corporate interests. The second obstacle is the resultant shortage of research funds for agrobiodiversity solutions in comparison with funding for research in genetic modification of crops. Favoring biodiversity does not exclude any future biotechnological contributions, but favoring biotechnology threatens future biodiversity resources. An objective review of current knowledge places GM crops far down the list of potential solutions in the coming decades. We conclude that much of the research funding currently available for the development of GM crops would be much better spent in other research areas of plant science, e.g., nutrition, policy research, governance, and solutions close to local market conditions if the goal is to provide sufficient food for the world’s growing population in a sustainable way.


GMO Underutilized crops Andean crops Food production Agrobiodiversity Sustainability