Acute toxicities of six manufactured nanomaterial suspensions to Daphnia magna
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- Zhu, X., Zhu, L., Chen, Y. et al. J Nanopart Res (2009) 11: 67. doi:10.1007/s11051-008-9426-8
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The rapid growth of nanotechnology is stimulating research on the potential environmental impacts of manufactured nanomaterials (MNMs). This paper summarizes a comprehensive study on the 48-h acute toxicity of water suspensions of six MNMs (i.e., ZnO, TiO2, Al2O3, C60, SWCNTs, and MWCNTs) to Daphnia magna, using immobilization and mortality as toxicological endpoints. The results show that the acute toxicities of all MNMs tested are dose dependent. The EC50 values for immobilization ranged from 0.622 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 114.357 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs), while the LC50 values for mortality ranged from 1.511 mg/L (ZnO NPs) to 162.392 mg/L (Al2O3 NPs). In these tests, TiO2, Al2O3, and carbon-based nanomaterials were more toxic than their bulk counterparts. Moreover, D. magna were found to ingest nanomaterials from the test solutions through feeding behaviors, which indicates that the potential ecotoxicities and environmental health effects of these MNMs cannot be neglected.