Original Article

Journal of Seismology

, Volume 17, Issue 1, pp 83-94

First online:

Open Access This content is freely available online to anyone, anywhere at any time.

Extending the double difference location technique—improving hypocenter depth determination

  • Lukasz RudzińskiAffiliated withInstitute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences Email author 
  • , Wojciech DȩbskiAffiliated withInstitute of Geophysics Polish Academy of Sciences


Locating the seismic event hypocenter is the very first issue undertaken when studying any seismological problem. Thus, the accuracy of the obtained solution can significantly influence consecutive stages of an analysis, so there is a continuous demand for new, more efficient, and accurate location algorithms. It is well recognized that there exists no single universal location algorithm which performs equally well in all situations. Seismic activity and its spatial variability over time, seismic network geometry, and the controlled area’s geological complexity are factors influencing the performance of location algorithms. For example, in the case of mining applications, the planarity of the seismic network usually operated at the exploitation level becomes an important issue limiting the accuracy of location of the hypocenter depths. In this paper, we push forward the discussion on the performance of the newly proposed location algorithm called the extended double difference (EDD), concentrating on the reliability of source depth estimation for mining-induced seismic events. We demonstrate that the EDD algorithm very efficiently uses information originating from the nonplanarity of the seismic network, improving the hypocenter depth estimates with respect to the classical double difference technique. Methodological considerations are illustrated by real data analysis of selected events from the Rudna copper mine (Poland).


Mining seismology Source location Double difference technique Extended double difference