Filamentous tropical marine cyanobacteria: a rich source of natural products for anticancer drug discovery
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- Tan, L.T. J Appl Phycol (2010) 22: 659. doi:10.1007/s10811-010-9506-x
A plethora of structurally novel bioactive secondary metabolites have been reported from the prokaryotic filamentous marine cyanobacteria in the past few decades. In addition to the production of harmful toxins, these marine blue-green algae are emerging as an important source of anticancer drugs. The majority of these potent biomolecules, including the dolastatins, curacin A, hectochlorin, the apratoxins, and the lyngbyabellins, belongs to the mixed polyketide–polypeptide structural class. Furthermore, a high proportion of these natural products target eukaryotic cytoskeleton, such as tubulin and actin microfilaments, making them an attractive source of potential anticancer drugs. In recent years, a number of potent marine cyanobacteria have also been reported to modulate cell death and apoptosis in cancer cells as well as target enzymes such as histone deacetylase. A number of marine cyanobacterial compounds have also served as structural templates for the generation of new drug leads, further attesting to the importance of these marine microbes as an important source of new pharmaceuticals. This review serves to highlight the chemistry and biology of selected anticancer marine cyanobacterial natural products exhibiting significant biological activities in the nanomolar or submicromolar range, and their discussion will be based on the different modes of action.