, Volume 21, Issue 6, pp 999–1015

Decolorization and biodegradation of reactive dyes and dye wastewater by a developed bacterial consortium

Original Paper

DOI: 10.1007/s10532-010-9360-1

Cite this article as:
Saratale, R.G., Saratale, G.D., Chang, J.S. et al. Biodegradation (2010) 21: 999. doi:10.1007/s10532-010-9360-1


A bacterial consortium (consortium GR) consisting of Proteus vulgaris NCIM-2027 and Micrococcus glutamicus NCIM-2168 could rapidly decolorize and degrade commonly-used sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD and many other reactive dyes. Consortium GR shows markedly higher decolorization activity than that of the individual strains. The preferable physicochemical parameters were identified to achieve higher dye degradation and decolorization efficiency. The supplementation of cheap co-substrates (e.g., extracts of agricultural wastes) could enhance the decolorization performance of consortium GR. Extent of mineralization was determined with TOC and COD measurements, showing nearly complete mineralization of Green HE4BD by consortium GR (up to 90% TOC and COD reduction) within 24 h. Oxidoreductive enzymes seemed to be involved in fast decolorization/degradation process with the evidence of enzymes induction in the bacterial consortium. Phytotoxicity and microbial toxicity studies confirm that the biodegraded products of Green HE4BD by consortium GR are non-toxic. Consortium GR also shows significant biodegradation and decolorization activities for mixture of reactive dyes as well as the effluent from actual dye manufacturing industry. This confers the possibility of applying consortium GR for the treatment of industrial wastewaters containing dye pollutants.


Biodegradation Decolorization Microbial consortium Sulfonated reactive dye Green HE4BD Phytotoxicity assay Dye wastewater 

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media B.V. 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of BiochemistryShivaji UniversityKolhapurIndia
  2. 2.Department of Chemical EngineeringNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  3. 3.Department of Biological Environment, College of Agriculture and Life SciencesKangwon National UniversityChuncheonSouth Korea
  4. 4.Sustainable Environment Research Center, National Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan
  5. 5.Center for Biosciences and BiotechnologyNational Cheng Kung UniversityTainanTaiwan

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