The International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology

, Volume 74, Issue 1, pp 65–78

Density of additively-manufactured, 316L SS parts using laser powder-bed fusion at powers up to 400 W


    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • Bassem El-dasher
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • Gilbert F. Gallegos
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • Wayne E. King
    • Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory
  • Aaron Sisto
    • Stanford University

DOI: 10.1007/s00170-014-5954-9

Cite this article as:
Kamath, C., El-dasher, B., Gallegos, G.F. et al. Int J Adv Manuf Technol (2014) 74: 65. doi:10.1007/s00170-014-5954-9


Selective laser melting is a powder-based, additive-manufacturing process where a three-dimensional part is produced, layer by layer, by using a high-energy laser beam to fuse the metallic powder particles. A particular challenge in this process is the selection of appropriate process parameters that result in parts with desired properties. In this study, we describe an approach to selecting parameters for high-density (>99 %) parts using 316L stainless steel. Though there has been significant success in achieving near-full density for 316L parts, this work has been limited to laser powers <225 W. We discuss how we can exploit prior knowledge, design of computational experiments using a simple model of laser melting, and single-track experiments to determine the process parameters for use at laser powers up to 400 W. Our results show that, at higher power values, there is a large range of scan speeds over which the relative density remains >99 %, with the density reducing rapidly at high speeds due to insufficient melting, and less rapidly at low speeds due to the effect of voids created as the process enters keyhole mode.


316L stainless steelKeyhole-mode laser meltingAdditive manufacturingPowder-bed fusionSelective laser meltingDirect metal laser sintering

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag London (outside the USA) 2014