Exchange Bias Material: FeMn

  • Shiming ZhouEmail author
  • Li Sun
  • Jun Du
Reference work entry


Since the exchange bias (EB) effect was discovered in the Co/CoO core-shell nanoparticles, it has been extensively studied in various ferromagnet/antiferromagnet material systems, both in experiments and in theory. Among many antiferromagnetic materials, metastable γ-FeMn emerges as the ideal material to reveal the physics mechanism behind the EB. In this chapter, the EB properties of FeMn-based bilayers are introduced by starting with the analysis of the spin configuration and structural and physical properties of bulk γ-FeMn, followed by the discussion of some basic features of the ferromagnetic/FeMn bilayers, such as the exchange field, the coercivity, the rotational hysteresis loss, and the blocking temperature as a function of the FeMn layer thickness, its crystalline microstructure, and temperature. Additionally, the thermal stability and training effect of the EB, the hysteretic effect of the angular dependent EB, and in particular the rotation of the pinning direction will be discussed in detail. The crucial role of the irreversible motion of FeMn spins will be analyzed as well.


Training Effect Exchange Bias Hysteretic Behavior Uniaxial Anisotropy Spin Valve 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations


Angular dependence of exchange bias


Angular change of pinning direction in the training effect


Angle of the external magnetic field with respect to the initial pinning direction




AFM layer thickness


Blocking temperature








Critical thickness of antiferromagnetic layer of the exchange bias onset


Curie temperature


Cycle number of hysteresis loops in the training effect


Exchange bias


Exchange bias field


Exchange coupling energy


External magnetic field




Ferromagnetic layer thickness


Ferromagnetic magnetization


Giant magnetoresistance


Magnetic moment of ferromagnetic layer perpendicular to the external magnetic field


Magnetic moment of ferromagnetic layer parallel to the external magnetic field


Magnetoresistive random access memory


Measurement temperature


Néel temperature


Net magnetic moment of the antiferromagnetic layer


Orientation of pinning direction


Pinning direction


Rotational hysteresis loss


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Further Reading

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.School of Physics Science and EngineeringTongji UniversityShanghaiChina
  2. 2.Department of Mechanical Engineering and Texas Center for Superconductivity (TcSUH)University of HoustonHoustonUSA
  3. 3.National Laboratory of Solid State MicrostructuresNanjing UniversityNanjingChina

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