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Hormones and Cerebellar Development

  • Noriyuki Koibuchi
  • Yayoi Ikeda

Abstract

Cerebellar development involves various epigenetic processes that activate specific genes at different time points. The epigenetic influences include humoral influences from endocrine cells. Among circulating hormones, a group of small lipophilic hormones such as steroids (corticosteroids, progesterone, androgens, and estrogens) and thyroid hormone may particularly serve an important role in mediating environmental influences to the cerebellum. Receptors for such lipophilic hormones are mainly located in the cell nucleus (nuclear receptor, NR), and represent the largest family of ligand-regulated transcription factors. In the cerebellum, these are expressed in a specific temporal and spatial pattern. Among lipophilic hormones, involvement of thyroid hormone and gonadal steroids on cerebellar development has been well studied. Deficiency of thyroid hormone during postnatal development results in abnormal cerebellar morphogenesis in rodents. Estrogen and progesterone also play an important role in this process. In addition to the supply from circulation, several gonadal steroids are produced locally within the Purkinje cell (neurosteroids). In this chapter, the effect of thyroid and steroid hormones are separately discussed. Neurosteroids that are locally synthesized in the cerebellum are discussed in  Chap. 42, “Neurosteroids and Synaptic Formation in the Cerebellum”.

Keywords

Thyroid Hormone Purkinje Cell Cerebellar Granule Cell Thyroid Hormone Receptor Gonadal Steroid 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

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© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Integrative PhysiologyGunma University Graduate School of MedicineMaebashiJapan
  2. 2.Department of Histology and Cell BiologyYokohama City University School of MedicineYokohamaJapan

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