Encyclopedia of Cancer

Living Edition
| Editors: Manfred Schwab

Reactive Oxygen Species

  • Gang Wang
Living reference work entry
DOI: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-27841-9_4966-8

Synonyms

Definition

Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are small molecule metabolites of oxygen that tend to participate in redox reactions because of their high reactivity. Redox reactions are divided into two chemical processes: oxidation and reduction. Oxidation is a chemical process to gain oxygen and lose hydrogen or electrons, whereas reduction is a chemical process to lose oxygen and gain hydrogen or electrons.

Characteristics

ROS are composed of free radicals and non-radicals, both inorganic and organic. Free radicals are a cluster of atoms that contain an unpaired electron in the outermost shell of electrons and are an extremely unstable configuration so that free radicals quickly react with other molecules or radicals to achieve the stable configuration of four pairs of electrons in their outermost shell (one pair for hydrogen). Typical free radicals include superoxide anion (O2•−), hydroxyl (HO), nitric oxide radical (NO), alkoxyl (RO), and peroxyl...

Keywords

Reactive Oxygen Species NADPH Oxidase Xanthine Oxidase Chronic Granulomatous Disease Gastric Outlet Obstruction 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.
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See Also

  1. (2008) Inflammatory Disorders. In: Offermanns S, Rosenthal W (eds) Encyclopedia of Molecular Pharmacology, 2nd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 630. doi:10.1007/978-3-540-38918-7_5963Google Scholar
  2. (2012) Chronic Granulomatous Disease. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 849. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1150Google Scholar
  3. (2012) DNA. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1129. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_1663Google Scholar
  4. (2012) Glutathione. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1559. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_2438Google Scholar
  5. (2012) Innate Immune System. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 1870. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3063Google Scholar
  6. (2012) NADPH Oxidase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2448. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_3959Google Scholar
  7. (2012) Phorbol Ester. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 2865. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_4522Google Scholar
  8. (2012) Respiratory Burst. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3264. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5056Google Scholar
  9. (2012) Superoxide Dismutase. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3563. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_5579Google Scholar
  10. (2012) Vitamin C. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3925. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6206Google Scholar
  11. (2012) Vitamin E. In: Schwab M (ed) Encyclopedia of Cancer, 3rd edn. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, p 3928. doi:10.1007/978-3-642-16483-5_6209Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Feil Brain and Mind Research InstituteWeill Cornell Medicine, Cornell UniversityNew YorkUSA