Methylation-Sensitive Restriction Fingerprinting

Part of the Methods in Molecular Biology™ book series (MIMB, volume 200)


Methylation of cytosine residues is an almost ubiquitous finding of higher organisms (1). The majority of this methylation occurs at the dinucleotide CpG (where p denotes a phosphate group) (2). CpG sites are distributed throughout the genome with clusters of the sequence being found in the 5′ promoter region of housekeeping genes, in groups known as CpG islands. These short stretches of DNA have a have a C and G base composition, which in mammals and avians is estimated to be 10 times higher than in bulk DNA (3)


Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Chronic Myeloid Leukemia Methylation Status Tumor Genome Acrylamide Solution 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. 1.
    Bestor, T. H. (1990) DNA methylation: evolution of a bacterial immuno function into a regulator of gene expression and genome structure in higher eukaryotes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. Lond. B 326x326, 179–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Gruenbaum, Y., Stein, R., Cedar, H., and Razin, A. (1981) Methylation of CpG sequences in eukaryotic DNA. FEBS Lett. 124, 67–71.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    Bird, A. P. (1986) CpG rich islands and the functions of DNA methylation. Nature 321, 209–213.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Riggs, A. D. and Pfeifer, G. P. (1992) X chromosome inactivation and cell memory. Trends Genet. 8, 169–174.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Brandeis, M., Frank, D., Keshet, I., Seigfried, Z., Mendelsohn, M., Nemes, A., et al. (1994) Sp1 elements protect a CpG island from de novo methylation. Nature 371, 435–438.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Stein, R., Sciaky-Gallili, N, Razin, A., and Cedar, H. (1982) Pattern of methylation of two genes coding for housekeeping gene functions. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA 79, 2422–2426.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Issa, J.-P. J., Vertino, P. M., Wu, J., Sazawal, S., Celano, P., Nelkin, B. D., et al. (1993) Increased cytosine DNA-methyltransferase activity during colon cancer progression. J. Natl. Canc. Inst. 85, 1235–1240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Melki, J. R., Warnecke, P., Vincent, P. C., and Clark, S. J. (1998) Increased DNA methyltransferase expression in leukaemia. Leukaemia 12, 311–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 10.
    Herman, J. G., Jen, J., Merlo, A., and Baylin, S. B. (1996) Hypermethylation-associated inactivation indicates a tumour supressor role for p15INK4B. Cancer Res. 56, 722–727.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. 11.
    Huang, T. H. M., Laux, D. E., Hamlin, B. C., Tran, P., Tran, H., and Lubahn, D. B. (1997) Identification of DNA methylation markers for human breast carcinomas using the methylation-sensitive restriction fingerprint technique. Cancer Res 57, 1030–1034.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. 12.
    Southern, E. M. (1975) Detection of specific sequences among DNA fragments separated by gel electrophoresis. J. Mol. Biol. 98, 503–506.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 13.
    Zeng, M., Martsen, E. O., and Lapeyre, J. N. (1998) Re-amplification of short primer-generated bands from RAPD and methylation-sensitive restriction fingerprinting by discrimination primers.Biotechniques 24, 402–403.PubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Humana Press Inc. 2002

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Medical BiochemistryUniversity of Wales College of MedicineCardiffUK

Personalised recommendations